Bidirectional generative adversarial networks (BiGANs) and cycle generative adversarial networks (CycleGANs) are two emerging machine learning models that, up to now, have been used as generative models, i.e., to generate output data sampled from a target probability distribution. However, these models are also equipped with encoding modules, which, after weakly supervised training, could be, in principle, exploited for the extraction of hidden features from the input data. At the present time, how these extracted features could be effectively exploited for classification tasks is still an unexplored field. Hence, motivated by this consideration, in this paper, we develop and numerically test the performance of a novel inference engine that relies on the exploitation of BiGAN and CycleGAN-learned hidden features for the detection of COVID-19 disease from other lung diseases in computer tomography (CT) scans. In this respect, the main contributions of the paper are twofold. First, we develop a kernel density estimation (KDE)-based inference method, which, in the training phase, leverages the hidden features extracted by BiGANs and CycleGANs for estimating the (a priori unknown) probability density function (PDF) of the CT scans of COVID-19 patients and, then, in the inference phase, uses it as a target COVID-PDF for the detection of COVID diseases. As a second major contribution, we numerically evaluate and compare the classification accuracies of the implemented BiGAN and CycleGAN models against the ones of some state-of-the-art methods, which rely on the unsupervised training of convolutional autoencoders (CAEs) for attaining feature extraction. The performance comparisons are carried out by considering a spectrum of different training loss functions and distance metrics. The obtained classification accuracies of the proposed CycleGAN-based (resp., BiGAN-based) models outperform the corresponding ones of the considered benchmark CAE-based models of about 16% (resp., 14%).

How much BiGAN and CycleGAN-learned hidden features are effective for COVID-19 detection from CT images? A comparative study / SARV AHRABI, Sima; Momenzadeh, Alireza; Baccarelli, Enzo; Scarpiniti, Michele; Piazzo, Lorenzo. - In: THE JOURNAL OF SUPERCOMPUTING. - ISSN 0920-8542. - 79:3(2023), pp. 2850-2881. [10.1007/s11227-022-04775-y]

How much BiGAN and CycleGAN-learned hidden features are effective for COVID-19 detection from CT images? A comparative study

Sima Sarv Ahrabi
;
Alireza Momenzadeh;Enzo Baccarelli;Michele Scarpiniti
;
Lorenzo Piazzo
2023

Abstract

Bidirectional generative adversarial networks (BiGANs) and cycle generative adversarial networks (CycleGANs) are two emerging machine learning models that, up to now, have been used as generative models, i.e., to generate output data sampled from a target probability distribution. However, these models are also equipped with encoding modules, which, after weakly supervised training, could be, in principle, exploited for the extraction of hidden features from the input data. At the present time, how these extracted features could be effectively exploited for classification tasks is still an unexplored field. Hence, motivated by this consideration, in this paper, we develop and numerically test the performance of a novel inference engine that relies on the exploitation of BiGAN and CycleGAN-learned hidden features for the detection of COVID-19 disease from other lung diseases in computer tomography (CT) scans. In this respect, the main contributions of the paper are twofold. First, we develop a kernel density estimation (KDE)-based inference method, which, in the training phase, leverages the hidden features extracted by BiGANs and CycleGANs for estimating the (a priori unknown) probability density function (PDF) of the CT scans of COVID-19 patients and, then, in the inference phase, uses it as a target COVID-PDF for the detection of COVID diseases. As a second major contribution, we numerically evaluate and compare the classification accuracies of the implemented BiGAN and CycleGAN models against the ones of some state-of-the-art methods, which rely on the unsupervised training of convolutional autoencoders (CAEs) for attaining feature extraction. The performance comparisons are carried out by considering a spectrum of different training loss functions and distance metrics. The obtained classification accuracies of the proposed CycleGAN-based (resp., BiGAN-based) models outperform the corresponding ones of the considered benchmark CAE-based models of about 16% (resp., 14%).
2023
BiGAN; CAE; COVID-19 detection; Complexity-vs.-accuracy comparisons; CycleGAN; Hidden feature extraction; Unsupervised-vs.-weakly supervised learning
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01a Articolo in rivista
How much BiGAN and CycleGAN-learned hidden features are effective for COVID-19 detection from CT images? A comparative study / SARV AHRABI, Sima; Momenzadeh, Alireza; Baccarelli, Enzo; Scarpiniti, Michele; Piazzo, Lorenzo. - In: THE JOURNAL OF SUPERCOMPUTING. - ISSN 0920-8542. - 79:3(2023), pp. 2850-2881. [10.1007/s11227-022-04775-y]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1664669
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