Background: This paper aimed to evaluate the frequency of observation of genetically determined developmental encephalopathies with epilepsy and movement disorders in a specialistic center, the distribution of etiologies and presenting clinical hallmarks, and the mean times for the achievement of molecular genetic diagnosis. Patients and methods: Retrospective data about clinical phenotypes, etiology, and diagnostic pathways were collected in all the genetically confirmed patients with developmental encephalopathies with epilepsy and movement disorders referred to our institution between 2010 and 2020. The cohort was divided into two groups according to the predominant movement disorder type: 1) Group A: patients with hyperkinetic movement disorders; 2) Group B: patients with hypokinetic movement disorders. Both groups were analyzed in terms of developmental, epileptic, and movement disorder phenotypes. Results: The cohort included 69 patients (Group A = 53; Group B = 16). The etiological spectrum was heterogeneous with a predominance of Rett and Angelman syndrome in Group A and neurodegenerative disorders in Group B. A moderate/severe intellectual disability was assessed in 58/69 patients (mean age at the first signs of developmental impairment = 1,87 ± 1,72 years). Group A included patients with an earlier onset of epileptic seizures (2,63 ± 3,15 vs. 4,45 ± 5,55 years of group B) and a predominant generalized motor semiology of seizures at the onset. Focal seizures were the main initial epileptic manifestations in Group B. Seizures were noticed earlier than movement disorders in Group A while the opposite occurred in Group B. A higher increase in molecular genetic diagnosis was obtained in the last five years. Mean diagnostic delay was longer in Group B than in Group A (12,26 ± 13,32 vs. 5.66 ± 6.41 years). Chorea as an initial movement disorder was associated with a significantly longer diagnostic delay and a higher age at etiological diagnosis. Conclusions: This study suggested: (a) a higher frequency of genetic defects involving neurotransmission, neuronal excitability, or neural development in patients with hyperkinetic movement disorders; (b) a higher frequency of neurodegenerative courses and a longer diagnostic delay in patients with hypokinetic movement disorders.

Presenting Patterns of Genetically Determined Developmental Encephalopathies With Epilepsy and Movement Disorders: A Single Tertiary Center Retrospective Cohort Study.

Mastrangelo M;Galosi S;Cesario S;Renzi A;Campea L;Leuzzi V.
2022

Abstract

Background: This paper aimed to evaluate the frequency of observation of genetically determined developmental encephalopathies with epilepsy and movement disorders in a specialistic center, the distribution of etiologies and presenting clinical hallmarks, and the mean times for the achievement of molecular genetic diagnosis. Patients and methods: Retrospective data about clinical phenotypes, etiology, and diagnostic pathways were collected in all the genetically confirmed patients with developmental encephalopathies with epilepsy and movement disorders referred to our institution between 2010 and 2020. The cohort was divided into two groups according to the predominant movement disorder type: 1) Group A: patients with hyperkinetic movement disorders; 2) Group B: patients with hypokinetic movement disorders. Both groups were analyzed in terms of developmental, epileptic, and movement disorder phenotypes. Results: The cohort included 69 patients (Group A = 53; Group B = 16). The etiological spectrum was heterogeneous with a predominance of Rett and Angelman syndrome in Group A and neurodegenerative disorders in Group B. A moderate/severe intellectual disability was assessed in 58/69 patients (mean age at the first signs of developmental impairment = 1,87 ± 1,72 years). Group A included patients with an earlier onset of epileptic seizures (2,63 ± 3,15 vs. 4,45 ± 5,55 years of group B) and a predominant generalized motor semiology of seizures at the onset. Focal seizures were the main initial epileptic manifestations in Group B. Seizures were noticed earlier than movement disorders in Group A while the opposite occurred in Group B. A higher increase in molecular genetic diagnosis was obtained in the last five years. Mean diagnostic delay was longer in Group B than in Group A (12,26 ± 13,32 vs. 5.66 ± 6.41 years). Chorea as an initial movement disorder was associated with a significantly longer diagnostic delay and a higher age at etiological diagnosis. Conclusions: This study suggested: (a) a higher frequency of genetic defects involving neurotransmission, neuronal excitability, or neural development in patients with hyperkinetic movement disorders; (b) a higher frequency of neurodegenerative courses and a longer diagnostic delay in patients with hypokinetic movement disorders.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11573/1654011
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