Colorectal cancer (CRC) is rapidly increasing representing the second most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths. From a clinical-molecular standpoint the therapeutically management of CRC focuses on main alterations found in the RAS family protein, where single mutations of KRAS are considered both the hallmark and the target of this tumor. Double and concomitant alterations of KRAS are still far to be interpreted as molecular characteristics which could potentially address different and more personalized treatments for patients. Here, we firstly describe the case of two patients at different stages (pT2N0M0 and pT4cN1cM1) but similarly showing a double concurrent mutations G12D and G13D in the exon 2 of the KRAS gene, normally mutually exclusive. We also evaluated genetic testing of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) and microsatellite instability (MSI) by real-time PCR and additional molecular mutations by next generation sequencing (NGS) which resulted coherently to the progression of the disease. Accordingly, we reinterpreted and discuss the clinical history of both cases treated as single mutations of KRAS but similarly progressing towards a metastatic asset. We concluded that double mutations of KRAS cannot be interpreted as univocal genomic alterations and that they could severely impact the clinical outcome in CRC, requiring a tighter monitoring of patients throughout the time.

Abstract: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is rapidly increasing representing the second most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths. From a clinical-molecular standpoint the therapeutically management of CRC focuses on main alterations found in the RAS family protein, where single mutations of KRAS are considered both the hallmark and the target of this tumor. Double and concomitant alterations of KRAS are still far to be interpreted as molecular characteristics which could potentially address different and more personalized treatments for patients. Here, we firstly describe the case of two patients at different stages (pT2N0M0 and pT4cN1cM1) but similarly showing a double concurrent mutations G12D and G13D in the exon 2 of the KRAS gene, normally mutually exclusive. We also evaluated genetic testing of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) and microsatellite instability (MSI) by real-time PCR and additional molecular mutations by next generation sequencing (NGS) which resulted coherently to the progression of the disease. Accordingly, we reinterpreted and discuss the clinical history of both cases treated as single mutations of KRAS but similarly progressing towards a metastatic asset. We concluded that double mutations of KRAS cannot be interpreted as univocal genomic alterations and that they could severely impact the clinical outcome in CRC, requiring a tighter monitoring of patients throughout the time.

Concomitant mutations G12D and G13D on the exon 2 of the KRAS gene. Two cases of women with colon adenocarcinoma / De Falco, Elena; Pacini, Luca; Bastianelli, Daniela; Spinelli, Gian Paolo; Spoto, Chiara; Veltri, Enzo; Calogero, Antonella. - In: DIAGNOSTICS. - ISSN 2075-4418. - 11:4(2021), pp. 1-9. [10.3390/diagnostics11040659]

Concomitant mutations G12D and G13D on the exon 2 of the KRAS gene. Two cases of women with colon adenocarcinoma

De Falco, Elena;Pacini, Luca;Bastianelli, Daniela;Spinelli, Gian Paolo;Calogero, Antonella
2021

Abstract

Abstract: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is rapidly increasing representing the second most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths. From a clinical-molecular standpoint the therapeutically management of CRC focuses on main alterations found in the RAS family protein, where single mutations of KRAS are considered both the hallmark and the target of this tumor. Double and concomitant alterations of KRAS are still far to be interpreted as molecular characteristics which could potentially address different and more personalized treatments for patients. Here, we firstly describe the case of two patients at different stages (pT2N0M0 and pT4cN1cM1) but similarly showing a double concurrent mutations G12D and G13D in the exon 2 of the KRAS gene, normally mutually exclusive. We also evaluated genetic testing of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) and microsatellite instability (MSI) by real-time PCR and additional molecular mutations by next generation sequencing (NGS) which resulted coherently to the progression of the disease. Accordingly, we reinterpreted and discuss the clinical history of both cases treated as single mutations of KRAS but similarly progressing towards a metastatic asset. We concluded that double mutations of KRAS cannot be interpreted as univocal genomic alterations and that they could severely impact the clinical outcome in CRC, requiring a tighter monitoring of patients throughout the time.
2021
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is rapidly increasing representing the second most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths. From a clinical-molecular standpoint the therapeutically management of CRC focuses on main alterations found in the RAS family protein, where single mutations of KRAS are considered both the hallmark and the target of this tumor. Double and concomitant alterations of KRAS are still far to be interpreted as molecular characteristics which could potentially address different and more personalized treatments for patients. Here, we firstly describe the case of two patients at different stages (pT2N0M0 and pT4cN1cM1) but similarly showing a double concurrent mutations G12D and G13D in the exon 2 of the KRAS gene, normally mutually exclusive. We also evaluated genetic testing of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) and microsatellite instability (MSI) by real-time PCR and additional molecular mutations by next generation sequencing (NGS) which resulted coherently to the progression of the disease. Accordingly, we reinterpreted and discuss the clinical history of both cases treated as single mutations of KRAS but similarly progressing towards a metastatic asset. We concluded that double mutations of KRAS cannot be interpreted as univocal genomic alterations and that they could severely impact the clinical outcome in CRC, requiring a tighter monitoring of patients throughout the time.
colorectal cancer; next generation sequencing; KRAS; G12D; G13D
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01i Case report
Concomitant mutations G12D and G13D on the exon 2 of the KRAS gene. Two cases of women with colon adenocarcinoma / De Falco, Elena; Pacini, Luca; Bastianelli, Daniela; Spinelli, Gian Paolo; Spoto, Chiara; Veltri, Enzo; Calogero, Antonella. - In: DIAGNOSTICS. - ISSN 2075-4418. - 11:4(2021), pp. 1-9. [10.3390/diagnostics11040659]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1534470
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