Introduction: Brachydactyly is a bone development abnormality presenting with variable phenotypes and different transmission patterns. Mutations in GDF5 (Growth and Differentiation Factor 5, MIM *601146) account for a significant amount of cases. Here, we report on a three-generation family, where the proband and the grandfather have an isolated brachydactyly with features of both type A1 (MIM #112500) and type C (MIM #113100), while the mother shows only subtle hand phenotype signs. Materials and methods: Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) was performed on the two affected individuals. An in-depth analysis of GDF5 genotype-phenotype correlations was performed through literature reviewing and retrieving information from several databases to elucidate GDF5-related molecular pathogenic mechanisms. Results: WES analysis disclosed a pathogenic variant in GDF5 (NM_000557.5:c.157dup; NP_000548.2:p.Leu53Profs*41; rs778834209), segregating with the phenotype. The frameshift variant was previously associated with Brachydactyly type C (MIM #113100), in heterozygosity, and with the severe Grebe type chondrodysplasia (MIM #200700), in homozygosity. In-depth analysis of literature and databases allowed to retrieve GDF5 mutations and correlations to phenotypes. We disclosed the association of 49 GDF5 pathogenic mutations with eight phenotypes, with both autosomal dominant and recessive transmission patterns. Clinical presentations ranged from severe defects of limb morphogenesis to mild redundant ossification. We suggest that such clinical gradient can be linked to a continuum of GDF5-activity variation, with loss of GDF5 activity underlying bone development defects, and gain of function causing disorders with excessive bone formation. Conclusions: Our analysis of GDF5 pathogenicity mechanisms furtherly supports that mutation and zygosity backgrounds resulting in the same level of GDF5 activity may lead to similar phenotypes. This information can aid in interpreting the potential pathogenic effect of new variants and in supporting an appropriate genetic counseling.

GDF5 mutation case report and a systematic review of molecular and clinical spectrum: Expanding current knowledge on genotype-phenotype correlations / Genovesi, M. L.; Guadagnolo, D.; Marchionni, E.; Giovannetti, A.; Traversa, A.; Panzironi, N.; Bernardo, S.; Palumbo, P.; Petrizzelli, F.; Carella, M.; Mazza, T.; Pizzuti, A.; Caputo, V.. - In: BONE. - ISSN 8756-3282. - 144:(2021). [10.1016/j.bone.2020.115803]

GDF5 mutation case report and a systematic review of molecular and clinical spectrum: Expanding current knowledge on genotype-phenotype correlations

Genovesi M. L.;Guadagnolo D.;Marchionni E.;Traversa A.;Panzironi N.;Bernardo S.;Petrizzelli F.;Pizzuti A.;Caputo V.
2021

Abstract

Introduction: Brachydactyly is a bone development abnormality presenting with variable phenotypes and different transmission patterns. Mutations in GDF5 (Growth and Differentiation Factor 5, MIM *601146) account for a significant amount of cases. Here, we report on a three-generation family, where the proband and the grandfather have an isolated brachydactyly with features of both type A1 (MIM #112500) and type C (MIM #113100), while the mother shows only subtle hand phenotype signs. Materials and methods: Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) was performed on the two affected individuals. An in-depth analysis of GDF5 genotype-phenotype correlations was performed through literature reviewing and retrieving information from several databases to elucidate GDF5-related molecular pathogenic mechanisms. Results: WES analysis disclosed a pathogenic variant in GDF5 (NM_000557.5:c.157dup; NP_000548.2:p.Leu53Profs*41; rs778834209), segregating with the phenotype. The frameshift variant was previously associated with Brachydactyly type C (MIM #113100), in heterozygosity, and with the severe Grebe type chondrodysplasia (MIM #200700), in homozygosity. In-depth analysis of literature and databases allowed to retrieve GDF5 mutations and correlations to phenotypes. We disclosed the association of 49 GDF5 pathogenic mutations with eight phenotypes, with both autosomal dominant and recessive transmission patterns. Clinical presentations ranged from severe defects of limb morphogenesis to mild redundant ossification. We suggest that such clinical gradient can be linked to a continuum of GDF5-activity variation, with loss of GDF5 activity underlying bone development defects, and gain of function causing disorders with excessive bone formation. Conclusions: Our analysis of GDF5 pathogenicity mechanisms furtherly supports that mutation and zygosity backgrounds resulting in the same level of GDF5 activity may lead to similar phenotypes. This information can aid in interpreting the potential pathogenic effect of new variants and in supporting an appropriate genetic counseling.
Bone disorders; Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMP) pathway; Brachydactyly; Chondrodysplasia; GDF5; Genotype-phenotype correlations; Whole Exome Sequencing
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GDF5 mutation case report and a systematic review of molecular and clinical spectrum: Expanding current knowledge on genotype-phenotype correlations / Genovesi, M. L.; Guadagnolo, D.; Marchionni, E.; Giovannetti, A.; Traversa, A.; Panzironi, N.; Bernardo, S.; Palumbo, P.; Petrizzelli, F.; Carella, M.; Mazza, T.; Pizzuti, A.; Caputo, V.. - In: BONE. - ISSN 8756-3282. - 144:(2021). [10.1016/j.bone.2020.115803]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1493515
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