Leishmania protozoans are the causative agent of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease consisting of three major clinical forms: visceral leishmaniasis (VL), cutaneous leishmaniasis, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. VL is caused by Leishmania donovani in East Africa and the Indian subcontinent and by Leishmania infantum in Europe, North Africa, and Latin America, and causes an estimated 60,000 deaths per year. Trypanothione reductase (TR) is considered to be one of the best targets to find new drugs against leishmaniasis. This enzyme is fundamental for parasite survival in the human host since it reduces trypanothione, a molecule used by the tryparedoxin/tryparedoxin peroxidase system of Leishmania to neutralize the hydrogen peroxide produced by host macrophages during infection. Recently, we solved the X-ray structure of TR in complex with the diaryl sulfide compound RDS 777 (6-(sec-butoxy)-2-((3-chlorophenyl)thio)pyrimidin-4-amine), which impairs the parasite defense against the reactive oxygen species by inhibiting TR with high efficiency. The compound binds to the catalytic site and engages in hydrogen bonds the residues more involved in the catalysis, namely Glu466′, Cys57 and Cys52, thereby inhibiting the trypanothione binding. On the basis of the RDS 777–TR complex, we synthesized structurally related diaryl sulfide analogs as TR inhibitors able to compete for trypanothione binding to the enzyme and to kill the promastigote in the micromolar range. One of the most active among these compounds (RDS 562) was able to reduce the trypanothione concentration in cell of about 33% via TR inhibition. RDS 562 inhibits selectively Leishmania TR, while it does not inhibit the human homolog glutathione reductase.

Structure-guided approach to identify a novel class of anti-leishmaniasis diaryl sulfide compounds targeting the trypanothione metabolism / Colotti, G.; Saccoliti, F.; Gramiccia, M.; Di Muccio, T.; Prakash, J.; Yadav, S.; Dubey, V. K.; Vistoli, G.; Battista, T.; Mocci, S.; Fiorillo, A.; Bibi, Aasia; Madia, V. N.; Messore, A.; Costi, R.; Di Santo, R.; Ilari, A.. - In: AMINO ACIDS. - ISSN 0939-4451. - (2019). [10.1007/s00726-019-02731-4]

Structure-guided approach to identify a novel class of anti-leishmaniasis diaryl sulfide compounds targeting the trypanothione metabolism

Colotti G.;Saccoliti F.;Yadav S.;Battista T.;Mocci S.;Fiorillo A.;BIBI, AASIA;Madia V. N.;Messore A.;Costi R.;Di Santo R.;Ilari A.
2019

Abstract

Leishmania protozoans are the causative agent of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease consisting of three major clinical forms: visceral leishmaniasis (VL), cutaneous leishmaniasis, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. VL is caused by Leishmania donovani in East Africa and the Indian subcontinent and by Leishmania infantum in Europe, North Africa, and Latin America, and causes an estimated 60,000 deaths per year. Trypanothione reductase (TR) is considered to be one of the best targets to find new drugs against leishmaniasis. This enzyme is fundamental for parasite survival in the human host since it reduces trypanothione, a molecule used by the tryparedoxin/tryparedoxin peroxidase system of Leishmania to neutralize the hydrogen peroxide produced by host macrophages during infection. Recently, we solved the X-ray structure of TR in complex with the diaryl sulfide compound RDS 777 (6-(sec-butoxy)-2-((3-chlorophenyl)thio)pyrimidin-4-amine), which impairs the parasite defense against the reactive oxygen species by inhibiting TR with high efficiency. The compound binds to the catalytic site and engages in hydrogen bonds the residues more involved in the catalysis, namely Glu466′, Cys57 and Cys52, thereby inhibiting the trypanothione binding. On the basis of the RDS 777–TR complex, we synthesized structurally related diaryl sulfide analogs as TR inhibitors able to compete for trypanothione binding to the enzyme and to kill the promastigote in the micromolar range. One of the most active among these compounds (RDS 562) was able to reduce the trypanothione concentration in cell of about 33% via TR inhibition. RDS 562 inhibits selectively Leishmania TR, while it does not inhibit the human homolog glutathione reductase.
2019
Diaryl sulfide inhibitors; Structure-based drug design; Trypanothione metabolism; Trypanothione reductase
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01a Articolo in rivista
Structure-guided approach to identify a novel class of anti-leishmaniasis diaryl sulfide compounds targeting the trypanothione metabolism / Colotti, G.; Saccoliti, F.; Gramiccia, M.; Di Muccio, T.; Prakash, J.; Yadav, S.; Dubey, V. K.; Vistoli, G.; Battista, T.; Mocci, S.; Fiorillo, A.; Bibi, Aasia; Madia, V. N.; Messore, A.; Costi, R.; Di Santo, R.; Ilari, A.. - In: AMINO ACIDS. - ISSN 0939-4451. - (2019). [10.1007/s00726-019-02731-4]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1336764
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