Hydroxyurea is a cytotoxic agent widely used in the treatment of myeloproliferative disorders. It is considered a-well-tolerated antineoplastic drug, with a dose-related bone marrow suppression as main adverse effect. This report describes a patient with essential thrombocythemia who developed an interstitial pneumonitis and respiratory failure within 4 years from beginning therapy with hydroxyurea (HU). After discontinuing of HU. both clinical and radiological resolution of pneumonitis occurred. In conclusion, HU-induced pulmonary toxicity is a potentially life-threatening side effect.
Hydroxyurea-induced interstitial pneumonitis: case report and review of the literature / Internullo, Mattia; Giannelli, Valerio; Sardo, Liborio; Antonaglia, Caterina; Villani, Tullia; Angelici, Elena; Palange, Paolo. - In: EUROPEAN REVIEW FOR MEDICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL SCIENCES. - ISSN 2284-0729. - 18:2(2014), p. 190-3.