Precise control of substrate positioning and orientation (its proximity to the reactive unit) is often invoked to rationalize the superior enzymatic reaction rates and selectivities when compared to synthetic models. Artificial nonheme iron (IV) oxo (Fe(IV)=O) complexes react with C(sp3)-H bonds via a biomimetic Hydrogen Atom Transfer/Hydroxyl Rebound mechanism, but rates, site-selectivity and even hydroxyl rebound efficiency (ligand rebound versus substrate radical diffusion) are smaller than in oxygenases. Herein, we quantitatively analyze how substrate binding modulates nonheme Fe(IV)=O reactivity by comparing rates and outcomes of C-H oxidation by a pair of Fe(IV)=O complexes that share the same first coordination sphere but only one contains a crown ether receptor that recognizes the substrate. Substrate binding makes the reaction intramolecular, exhibiting Michaelis-Menten kinetics and increased reaction rates. In addition, C-H oxidation occurs with high site selectivity for remote sites. Analysis of Effective Molarity reveals that the system operates at its maximal theoretical capability for the oxidation of these remote sites. Remarkably, substrate positioning also affects Hydroxyl Rebound, whose efficiency only increases on the sites placed in proximity by recognition. Overall, these observations provide evidence that supramolecular control of substrate positioning can effectively modulate the reactivity of oxygenases and its models.We report evidence that supramolecular substrate binding increases several aspects of iron (IV) oxo (Fe(IV)=O) reactivity not only in nonheme oxygenases but also in synthetic models. Recognition-induced proximity of certain substrate C-H bonds increases both rate and selectivity for their C-H abstraction, analyzed by Effective Molarity, and increases the efficiency of subsequent Oxygen Rebound, as exclusively observed in enzymes.+ image

Proximity Effects on the Reactivity of a Nonheme Iron (IV) Oxo Complex in C−H Oxidation / Fagnano, Alessandro; Frateloreto, Federico; Paoloni, Roberta; Sappino, Carla; Lanzalunga, Osvaldo; Costas, Miquel; DI STEFANO, Stefano; Olivo, Giorgio. - In: ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE. - ISSN 1521-3773. - 63:21(2024), pp. 1-10. [10.1002/anie.202401694]

Proximity Effects on the Reactivity of a Nonheme Iron (IV) Oxo Complex in C−H Oxidation

Alessandro Fagnano
Co-primo
;
Federico Frateloreto
Co-primo
;
Roberta Paoloni;Carla Sappino;Osvaldo Lanzalunga;Stefano DiStefano
Penultimo
;
Giorgio Olivo
Ultimo
2024

Abstract

Precise control of substrate positioning and orientation (its proximity to the reactive unit) is often invoked to rationalize the superior enzymatic reaction rates and selectivities when compared to synthetic models. Artificial nonheme iron (IV) oxo (Fe(IV)=O) complexes react with C(sp3)-H bonds via a biomimetic Hydrogen Atom Transfer/Hydroxyl Rebound mechanism, but rates, site-selectivity and even hydroxyl rebound efficiency (ligand rebound versus substrate radical diffusion) are smaller than in oxygenases. Herein, we quantitatively analyze how substrate binding modulates nonheme Fe(IV)=O reactivity by comparing rates and outcomes of C-H oxidation by a pair of Fe(IV)=O complexes that share the same first coordination sphere but only one contains a crown ether receptor that recognizes the substrate. Substrate binding makes the reaction intramolecular, exhibiting Michaelis-Menten kinetics and increased reaction rates. In addition, C-H oxidation occurs with high site selectivity for remote sites. Analysis of Effective Molarity reveals that the system operates at its maximal theoretical capability for the oxidation of these remote sites. Remarkably, substrate positioning also affects Hydroxyl Rebound, whose efficiency only increases on the sites placed in proximity by recognition. Overall, these observations provide evidence that supramolecular control of substrate positioning can effectively modulate the reactivity of oxygenases and its models.We report evidence that supramolecular substrate binding increases several aspects of iron (IV) oxo (Fe(IV)=O) reactivity not only in nonheme oxygenases but also in synthetic models. Recognition-induced proximity of certain substrate C-H bonds increases both rate and selectivity for their C-H abstraction, analyzed by Effective Molarity, and increases the efficiency of subsequent Oxygen Rebound, as exclusively observed in enzymes.+ image
2024
molecular recognition; nonheme iron; physical organic chemistry; rebound; supramolecular chemistry
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Proximity Effects on the Reactivity of a Nonheme Iron (IV) Oxo Complex in C−H Oxidation / Fagnano, Alessandro; Frateloreto, Federico; Paoloni, Roberta; Sappino, Carla; Lanzalunga, Osvaldo; Costas, Miquel; DI STEFANO, Stefano; Olivo, Giorgio. - In: ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE. - ISSN 1521-3773. - 63:21(2024), pp. 1-10. [10.1002/anie.202401694]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1710156
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