Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (CND) is a frequently-used anthocyanin that has excellent antioxidant properties but a limited bioavailability in bloodstream. Complexation of CND with alginate can improve its therapeutic outcome. Here we have studied the complexation of CND with alginate under a range of pH values from 2.5 to 5. CND is positively charged at low pH, and becomes neutral, and then negatively charged as pH increases. CND/alginate complexation was studied by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, small angle X-ray scattering, STEM, UV-Vis spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD). CND/alginate complexes at pH 4.0 and 5.0 form chiral fibres with a fractal structure. At these pH values, CD spectra show very intense bands, which are inverted compared with free CND. Complexation at lower pH results in disordered polymer structures and CD spectra show the same features as for CND in solution. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest the formation of parallel CND dimers through complexation with alginate at pH 3.0, while at pH 4.0 CND dimers form in a cross like arrangement.
A study of cyanidin/alginate complexation: Influence of pH in assembly and chiral properties / Chotechuang, Nattida; Di Gianvincenzo, Paolo; Chen, CHENG GIUSEPPE; Nardi, Alessandro Nicola; Padró, Daniel; Boonla, Chanchai; Ortore, Maria Grazia; D' Abramo, Marco; Moya, Sergio E. - In: CARBOHYDRATE POLYMERS. - ISSN 0144-8617. - 315:(2023), p. 120957. [10.1016/j.carbpol.2023.120957]