Microwave imaging is emerging as an alternative modality to conventional medical diagnostics technologies. However, its adoption is hindered by the intrinsic difficulties faced in the solution of the underlying inverse scattering problem, namely non-linearity and ill-posedness. In this paper, an innovative approach for a reliable and automated solution of the inverse scattering problem is presented, which combines a qualitative imaging technique and deep learning in a two-step framework. In the first step, the orthogonality sampling method is employed to process measurements of the scattered field into an image, which explicitly provides an estimate of the targets shapes and implicitly encodes information in their contrast values. In the second step, the images obtained in the previous step are fed into a neural network (U-Net), whose duty is retrieving the exact shape of the target and its contrast value. This task is cast as an image segmentation one, where each pixel is classified into a discrete set of permittivity values within a given range. The use of a reduced number of possible permittivities facilitates the training stage by limiting its scope. The approach was tested with synthetic data and validated with experimental data taken from the Fresnel database to allow a fair comparison with the literature. Finally, its potential for biomedical imaging is demonstrated with a numerical example related to microwave brain stroke diagnosis.

An Effective Framework for Deep-Learning-Enhanced Quantitative Microwave Imaging and Its Potential for Medical Applications / Yago Ruiz, Álvaro; Cavagnaro, Marta; Crocco, Lorenzo. - In: SENSORS. - ISSN 1424-8220. - 23:2(2023), pp. 1-16. [10.3390/s23020643]

An Effective Framework for Deep-Learning-Enhanced Quantitative Microwave Imaging and Its Potential for Medical Applications

Cavagnaro, Marta;
2023

Abstract

Microwave imaging is emerging as an alternative modality to conventional medical diagnostics technologies. However, its adoption is hindered by the intrinsic difficulties faced in the solution of the underlying inverse scattering problem, namely non-linearity and ill-posedness. In this paper, an innovative approach for a reliable and automated solution of the inverse scattering problem is presented, which combines a qualitative imaging technique and deep learning in a two-step framework. In the first step, the orthogonality sampling method is employed to process measurements of the scattered field into an image, which explicitly provides an estimate of the targets shapes and implicitly encodes information in their contrast values. In the second step, the images obtained in the previous step are fed into a neural network (U-Net), whose duty is retrieving the exact shape of the target and its contrast value. This task is cast as an image segmentation one, where each pixel is classified into a discrete set of permittivity values within a given range. The use of a reduced number of possible permittivities facilitates the training stage by limiting its scope. The approach was tested with synthetic data and validated with experimental data taken from the Fresnel database to allow a fair comparison with the literature. Finally, its potential for biomedical imaging is demonstrated with a numerical example related to microwave brain stroke diagnosis.
2023
U-Net; convolutional neural network; deep learning; inverse scattering; microwave imaging; orthogonality sampling method
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01a Articolo in rivista
An Effective Framework for Deep-Learning-Enhanced Quantitative Microwave Imaging and Its Potential for Medical Applications / Yago Ruiz, Álvaro; Cavagnaro, Marta; Crocco, Lorenzo. - In: SENSORS. - ISSN 1424-8220. - 23:2(2023), pp. 1-16. [10.3390/s23020643]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1678852
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