: Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) have some excellent properties that make them ideal candidates as sorbents for solid-phase extraction (SPE). However, practical difficulties related to their handling (dispersion in the atmosphere, bundling phenomena, reduced adsorption capability, sorbent loss in cartridge/column format, etc.) have hindered their direct use for conventional SPE modes. Therefore, researchers working in the field of extraction science have looked for new solutions to avoid the above-mentioned problems. One of these is the design of CNM-based membranes. These devices can be of two different types: membranes that are exclusively composed of CNMs (i.e. buckypaper and graphene oxide paper) and polysaccharide membranes containing dispersed CNMs. A membrane can be used either as a filter, operating under flow-through mode, or as a rotating device, operating under the action of magnetic stirring. In both cases, the main advantages arising from the use of membranes are excellent results in terms of transport rates, adsorption capability, high throughput, and ease of employment. This review covers the preparation/synthesis procedures of such membranes and their potential in SPE applications, highlighting benefits and shortcomings in comparison with conventional SPE materials (especially, microparticles carbonaceous sorbents) and devices. Further challenges and expected improvements are addressed too.
Carbon nanomaterial-based membranes in solid-phase extraction / Bosco, C. D.; De Cesaris, M. G.; Felli, N.; Lucci, E.; Fanali, S.; Gentili, A.. - In: MIKROCHIMICA ACTA. - ISSN 1436-5073. - 190:5(2023). [10.1007/s00604-023-05741-y]