Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a highly prevalent condition defined by the presence of at least three out of five risk factors including central obesity, increased fasting glucose, high blood pressure, and dyslipidaemia. Metabolic syndrome is associated with a 2-fold increase in cardiovascular outcomes and a 1.5-fold increase in all-cause mortality. Excess energy intake and Western dietary pattern may influence the development of metabolic syndrome. By contrast, both Mediterranean diet (Med-diet) and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, with or without calorie restriction, have positive effects. For the prevention and management of MetS, it is recommended to increase the daily intake of fiber-rich and low-glycaemic-index foods and the consumption of fish and dairy products, especially yogurt and nuts. Moreover, it is advisable to consume a large variety of unprocessed cereals, legumes, and fruit. Finally, it is suggested to replace saturated fatty acids with monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and to limit the consumption of free sugars to less than 10% of the total energy intake. The aim of this narrative review is to analyze current evidence on the different dietary patterns and nutrients that may affect prevention and treatment of MetS and to discuss the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms.

Diet and metabolic syndrome. A narrative review / Angelico, Francesco; Baratta, Francesco; Coronati, Mattia; Ferro, Domenico; Del Ben, Maria. - In: INTERNAL AND EMERGENCY MEDICINE. - ISSN 1970-9366. - (2023). [10.1007/s11739-023-03226-7]

Diet and metabolic syndrome. A narrative review

Angelico, Francesco;Ferro, Domenico;Del Ben, Maria
2023

Abstract

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a highly prevalent condition defined by the presence of at least three out of five risk factors including central obesity, increased fasting glucose, high blood pressure, and dyslipidaemia. Metabolic syndrome is associated with a 2-fold increase in cardiovascular outcomes and a 1.5-fold increase in all-cause mortality. Excess energy intake and Western dietary pattern may influence the development of metabolic syndrome. By contrast, both Mediterranean diet (Med-diet) and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, with or without calorie restriction, have positive effects. For the prevention and management of MetS, it is recommended to increase the daily intake of fiber-rich and low-glycaemic-index foods and the consumption of fish and dairy products, especially yogurt and nuts. Moreover, it is advisable to consume a large variety of unprocessed cereals, legumes, and fruit. Finally, it is suggested to replace saturated fatty acids with monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and to limit the consumption of free sugars to less than 10% of the total energy intake. The aim of this narrative review is to analyze current evidence on the different dietary patterns and nutrients that may affect prevention and treatment of MetS and to discuss the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms.
2023
diet; mediterranean diet; metabolic syndrome
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01g Articolo di rassegna (Review)
Diet and metabolic syndrome. A narrative review / Angelico, Francesco; Baratta, Francesco; Coronati, Mattia; Ferro, Domenico; Del Ben, Maria. - In: INTERNAL AND EMERGENCY MEDICINE. - ISSN 1970-9366. - (2023). [10.1007/s11739-023-03226-7]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1677294
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