This papers introduces an analytic method to define multistage launcher trajectories to determine the payload mass that can be inserted in orbits of different semimajor axes and inclinations. This method can evaluate the gravity loss, which is the main term to be subtracted to the Tziolkowski evaluation of the velocity provided by the thrust of a launcher. In the method, the trajectories are dependent on two parameters only: the final flight-path angle gamma(f) at the end of the gravity-turn arc of the launcher trajectory and the duration t, of the coasting arc following the gravity-turn phase. The analytic formulas for the gravity-turn phase, being solutions of differential equations with a singularity, allow us to identify the trajectory with a required final flight-path angle gamma(f) in infinite solutions with the same initial vertical launch condition. This can also drive the selection of the parameters of the pitch manoeuvre needed to turn the launcher from the initial vertical arc. For any pair gamma(f) and t(c), a launcher trajectory is determined. A numerical solver is used to identify the values gamma(f) and t(c), allowing for the insertion of the payload mass into the required orbit. The analytic method is compared with a numerical code including the drag effect, which is the only effect overlooked in the analytic formulas. The analytical method is proven to predict the payload mass with an error never exceeding the 10% of the actual payload mass, found through numerical propagation.

Analytic Derivation of Ascent Trajectories and Performance of Launch Vehicles / Teofilatto, Paolo; Carletta, Stefano; Pontani, Mauro. - In: APPLIED SCIENCES. - ISSN 2076-3417. - 12:11(2022), pp. 1-19. [10.3390/app12115685]

### Analytic Derivation of Ascent Trajectories and Performance of Launch Vehicles

#### Abstract

This papers introduces an analytic method to define multistage launcher trajectories to determine the payload mass that can be inserted in orbits of different semimajor axes and inclinations. This method can evaluate the gravity loss, which is the main term to be subtracted to the Tziolkowski evaluation of the velocity provided by the thrust of a launcher. In the method, the trajectories are dependent on two parameters only: the final flight-path angle gamma(f) at the end of the gravity-turn arc of the launcher trajectory and the duration t, of the coasting arc following the gravity-turn phase. The analytic formulas for the gravity-turn phase, being solutions of differential equations with a singularity, allow us to identify the trajectory with a required final flight-path angle gamma(f) in infinite solutions with the same initial vertical launch condition. This can also drive the selection of the parameters of the pitch manoeuvre needed to turn the launcher from the initial vertical arc. For any pair gamma(f) and t(c), a launcher trajectory is determined. A numerical solver is used to identify the values gamma(f) and t(c), allowing for the insertion of the payload mass into the required orbit. The analytic method is compared with a numerical code including the drag effect, which is the only effect overlooked in the analytic formulas. The analytical method is proven to predict the payload mass with an error never exceeding the 10% of the actual payload mass, found through numerical propagation.
##### Scheda breve Scheda completa
2022
multistage launch vehicles; ascent trajectory optimization; analytical performance evaluation; rocket staging
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Analytic Derivation of Ascent Trajectories and Performance of Launch Vehicles / Teofilatto, Paolo; Carletta, Stefano; Pontani, Mauro. - In: APPLIED SCIENCES. - ISSN 2076-3417. - 12:11(2022), pp. 1-19. [10.3390/app12115685]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: `https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1655435`
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