Evidence shows that there is a synergistic, bidirectional association between cancer and aging with many shared traits. Age itself is a risk factor for the onset of most cancers while evidence suggests that cancer and its treatments might accelerate aging by causing genotoxic and cytotoxic insults. Aging has been associated with a series of alterations that can be linked to cancer: i) genomic instability caused by DNA damage or epigenetic alterations coupled with repair errors, which lead to progressive accumulation of mutations; ii) telomere attrition with possible impairment of telomerase, shelterin complex, or the trimeric complex (Cdc13, Stn1 and Ten1 - CST) activities associated with abnormalities in DNA replication and repair; iii) altered proteostasis especially when leading to an augmented proteasome, chaperon and autophagy-lysosome activity; iv) mitochondrial dysfunction causing oxidative stress; v) cellular senescence; vi) stem cells exhaustion, intercellular altered communication and deregulated nutrient sensing which are associated with microenvironmental modifications which may facilitate the subsequential role of cancer stem cells. Nowadays anti-growth factor agents and epigenetic therapies seem to assume an increasing role to fight aging-related diseases, especially cancer. This report aims to discuss the impact of age on cancer growth.

Characteristic Hallmarks of Aging and the Impact on Carcinogenesis

SERGIO TERRACINA
Primo
Membro del Collaboration Group
2022

Abstract

Evidence shows that there is a synergistic, bidirectional association between cancer and aging with many shared traits. Age itself is a risk factor for the onset of most cancers while evidence suggests that cancer and its treatments might accelerate aging by causing genotoxic and cytotoxic insults. Aging has been associated with a series of alterations that can be linked to cancer: i) genomic instability caused by DNA damage or epigenetic alterations coupled with repair errors, which lead to progressive accumulation of mutations; ii) telomere attrition with possible impairment of telomerase, shelterin complex, or the trimeric complex (Cdc13, Stn1 and Ten1 - CST) activities associated with abnormalities in DNA replication and repair; iii) altered proteostasis especially when leading to an augmented proteasome, chaperon and autophagy-lysosome activity; iv) mitochondrial dysfunction causing oxidative stress; v) cellular senescence; vi) stem cells exhaustion, intercellular altered communication and deregulated nutrient sensing which are associated with microenvironmental modifications which may facilitate the subsequential role of cancer stem cells. Nowadays anti-growth factor agents and epigenetic therapies seem to assume an increasing role to fight aging-related diseases, especially cancer. This report aims to discuss the impact of age on cancer growth.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11573/1652245
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