Many cancer patients frequently fail to respond to anti-cancer treatment due to therapy resistance which is the major obstacle towards curative cancer treatment. Therefore, identification of the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance is of paramount clinical and economic importance. The advent of targeted therapies based on a molecular understanding of cancer could serve as a model for strategies to overcome drug resistance. Accordingly, the identification and validation of proteins critically involved in resistance mechanisms represent a path towards innovative therapeutic strategies to improve the clinical outcome of cancer patients. In this review, we discuss emerging targets, small molecule therapeutics and drug delivery strategies to overcome therapy resistance. We focus on rational treatment strategies based on transcription factors, pseudokinases, nuclear export receptors and immunogenic cell death strategy. Historically, unliganded transcription factors and pseudokinases were considered undruggable while blocking the nuclear export e.g., through inhibition of the nuclear export receptor CRM1 was predicted as highly toxic. Recent success inhibiting Gli-1, HIF-1α, HIF-2α and reactivating the tumor suppressor transcription factors p53 and FOXO illustrates the feasibility and power of this targeting approach. Similarly, progress has been made in modulating the activity of pseudokinase proteins implicated in therapy resistance including members of the Tribbles protein family. On the other hand, the recent clinical approval of Selinexor, a specific inhibitor of CRM-1, a protein that mediates the transport of cargos with leucine-rich nuclear export signals and known to be a driver of drug resistance, represents the proof-of-concept for inhibiting the nuclear export as a feasible strategy to overcome therapy resistance. The ever-growing capacity to target resistance mechanisms with judiciously selected small molecules, some of which are being formulated within smart nanoparticles, will pave the way towards the improvement of the clinical outcome and realize the full potential of targeted therapies and immunotherapies.

Modulating undruggable targets to overcome cancer therapy resistance / Passirani, C.; Vessieres, A.; La Regina, G.; Link, W.; Silvestri, R.. - In: DRUG RESISTANCE UPDATES. - ISSN 1368-7646. - 60:(2022). [10.1016/j.drup.2021.100788]

Modulating undruggable targets to overcome cancer therapy resistance

La Regina G.;Silvestri R.
2022

Abstract

Many cancer patients frequently fail to respond to anti-cancer treatment due to therapy resistance which is the major obstacle towards curative cancer treatment. Therefore, identification of the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance is of paramount clinical and economic importance. The advent of targeted therapies based on a molecular understanding of cancer could serve as a model for strategies to overcome drug resistance. Accordingly, the identification and validation of proteins critically involved in resistance mechanisms represent a path towards innovative therapeutic strategies to improve the clinical outcome of cancer patients. In this review, we discuss emerging targets, small molecule therapeutics and drug delivery strategies to overcome therapy resistance. We focus on rational treatment strategies based on transcription factors, pseudokinases, nuclear export receptors and immunogenic cell death strategy. Historically, unliganded transcription factors and pseudokinases were considered undruggable while blocking the nuclear export e.g., through inhibition of the nuclear export receptor CRM1 was predicted as highly toxic. Recent success inhibiting Gli-1, HIF-1α, HIF-2α and reactivating the tumor suppressor transcription factors p53 and FOXO illustrates the feasibility and power of this targeting approach. Similarly, progress has been made in modulating the activity of pseudokinase proteins implicated in therapy resistance including members of the Tribbles protein family. On the other hand, the recent clinical approval of Selinexor, a specific inhibitor of CRM-1, a protein that mediates the transport of cargos with leucine-rich nuclear export signals and known to be a driver of drug resistance, represents the proof-of-concept for inhibiting the nuclear export as a feasible strategy to overcome therapy resistance. The ever-growing capacity to target resistance mechanisms with judiciously selected small molecules, some of which are being formulated within smart nanoparticles, will pave the way towards the improvement of the clinical outcome and realize the full potential of targeted therapies and immunotherapies.
2022
Cancer; Drug development; Drug resistance; Nanomedicine; Therapeutic targets; Active Transport, Cell Nucleus; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm; Humans; Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; Antineoplastic Agents; Neoplasms
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01a Articolo in rivista
Modulating undruggable targets to overcome cancer therapy resistance / Passirani, C.; Vessieres, A.; La Regina, G.; Link, W.; Silvestri, R.. - In: DRUG RESISTANCE UPDATES. - ISSN 1368-7646. - 60:(2022). [10.1016/j.drup.2021.100788]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1622488
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