Huntington Disease (HD) is a dominant, lethal neurodegenerative disorder caused by the abnormal expansion (>35 copies) of a CAG triplet located in exon 1 of the HTT gene encoding the huntingtin protein (Htt). Mutated Htt (mHtt) easily aggregates, thereby inducing ER stress that in turn leads to neuronal injury and apoptosis. Therefore, both the inhibition of mHtt aggregate formation and the acceleration of mHtt degradation represent attractive strategies to delay HD progression, and even for HD treatment. Here, we describe the mechanism underlying mHtt degradation by the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS), which has been shown to play a more important role than the autophagy–lysosomal pathway. In particular, we focus on E3 ligase proteins involved in the UPS and detail their structure–function relationships. In this framework, we discuss the possible exploitation of PROteolysis TArgeting Chimeras (PROTACs) for HD therapy. PROTACs are heterobifunctional small molecules that comprise two different ligands joined by an appropriate linker; one of the ligands is specific for a selected E3 ubiquitin ligase, the other ligand is able to recruit a target protein of interest, in this case mHtt. As a consequence of PROTAC binding, mHtt and the E3 ubiquitin ligase can be brought to a relative position that allows mHtt to be ubiquitinated and, ultimately, allows a reduction in the amount of mHtt in the cell.

Huntingtin ubiquitination mechanisms and novel possible therapies to decrease the toxic effects of mutated huntingtin / Fiorillo, A.; Morea, V.; Colotti, G.; Ilari, A.. - In: JOURNAL OF PERSONALIZED MEDICINE. - ISSN 2075-4426. - 11:12(2021), p. 1309. [10.3390/jpm11121309]

Huntingtin ubiquitination mechanisms and novel possible therapies to decrease the toxic effects of mutated huntingtin

Fiorillo A.;Colotti G.;Ilari A.
2021

Abstract

Huntington Disease (HD) is a dominant, lethal neurodegenerative disorder caused by the abnormal expansion (>35 copies) of a CAG triplet located in exon 1 of the HTT gene encoding the huntingtin protein (Htt). Mutated Htt (mHtt) easily aggregates, thereby inducing ER stress that in turn leads to neuronal injury and apoptosis. Therefore, both the inhibition of mHtt aggregate formation and the acceleration of mHtt degradation represent attractive strategies to delay HD progression, and even for HD treatment. Here, we describe the mechanism underlying mHtt degradation by the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS), which has been shown to play a more important role than the autophagy–lysosomal pathway. In particular, we focus on E3 ligase proteins involved in the UPS and detail their structure–function relationships. In this framework, we discuss the possible exploitation of PROteolysis TArgeting Chimeras (PROTACs) for HD therapy. PROTACs are heterobifunctional small molecules that comprise two different ligands joined by an appropriate linker; one of the ligands is specific for a selected E3 ubiquitin ligase, the other ligand is able to recruit a target protein of interest, in this case mHtt. As a consequence of PROTAC binding, mHtt and the E3 ubiquitin ligase can be brought to a relative position that allows mHtt to be ubiquitinated and, ultimately, allows a reduction in the amount of mHtt in the cell.
2021
E3 ligases; huntingtin; mutated huntingtin clearance; PROTACs; ubiquitination
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01a Articolo in rivista
Huntingtin ubiquitination mechanisms and novel possible therapies to decrease the toxic effects of mutated huntingtin / Fiorillo, A.; Morea, V.; Colotti, G.; Ilari, A.. - In: JOURNAL OF PERSONALIZED MEDICINE. - ISSN 2075-4426. - 11:12(2021), p. 1309. [10.3390/jpm11121309]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1617233
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