A detailed description of the structure of the amphibole-supergroup minerals is very challenging owing to their complex chemical composition that renders the process of cation partition extremely difficult, particularly because of the occurrence of multivalent elements. Since amphiboles naturally occur under a fibrous morphology and have largely been used to produce asbestos, there is a growing demand for detailed and accurate structural data in order to study the relationships between structure, composition and toxicity. The present study proposes a recommended refinement procedure for both X-ray single-crystal structure refinement (SREF) and Rietveld analysis for tremolite, selected as a test case. The corresponding structural results are compared to estimate the ‘degree of confidence’ of the Rietveld refinement with regard to SREF. In particular, it is shown that the interpretation of the electron density of the tremolite structure by SREF is model dependent. By assuming that the sitescattering values from SREF should be as close as possible to those from electron microprobe analysis, as a crucial constraint for the correct description of the final crystal-chemical model, it is found that it is best satisfied by using partially ionized scattering curves (SCs) for O and Si, and neutral SCs (neutral oxygen curves or NOCs) for other atoms. This combination leads to the best fit to the diffraction data. Moreover, it is found that Rietveld refinement using NOCs produces the best structural results, in excellent agreement with SREF. It is worth noting that, due to the complexity of the diffraction pattern and the fairly large number of freely refinable parameters, refinements with different combinations of SCs produce results almost indistinguishable from a statistical point of view, albeit showing significant differences from a structural point of view.

Recommended X-ray single-crystal structure refinement and Rietveld refinement procedure for tremolite / Ballirano, Paolo; Celata, Beatrice; Pacella, Alessandro; Bosi, Ferdinando. - In: ACTA CRYSTALLOGRAPHICA. SECTION B, STRUCTURAL SCIENCE, CRYSTAL ENGINEERING AND MATERIALS. - ISSN 2052-5206. - 77:4(2021), pp. 537-549. [10.1107/S2052520621004844]

Recommended X-ray single-crystal structure refinement and Rietveld refinement procedure for tremolite

Ballirano Paolo
Primo
;
Celata Beatrice;Pacella Alessandro;Bosi Ferdinando
2021

Abstract

A detailed description of the structure of the amphibole-supergroup minerals is very challenging owing to their complex chemical composition that renders the process of cation partition extremely difficult, particularly because of the occurrence of multivalent elements. Since amphiboles naturally occur under a fibrous morphology and have largely been used to produce asbestos, there is a growing demand for detailed and accurate structural data in order to study the relationships between structure, composition and toxicity. The present study proposes a recommended refinement procedure for both X-ray single-crystal structure refinement (SREF) and Rietveld analysis for tremolite, selected as a test case. The corresponding structural results are compared to estimate the ‘degree of confidence’ of the Rietveld refinement with regard to SREF. In particular, it is shown that the interpretation of the electron density of the tremolite structure by SREF is model dependent. By assuming that the sitescattering values from SREF should be as close as possible to those from electron microprobe analysis, as a crucial constraint for the correct description of the final crystal-chemical model, it is found that it is best satisfied by using partially ionized scattering curves (SCs) for O and Si, and neutral SCs (neutral oxygen curves or NOCs) for other atoms. This combination leads to the best fit to the diffraction data. Moreover, it is found that Rietveld refinement using NOCs produces the best structural results, in excellent agreement with SREF. It is worth noting that, due to the complexity of the diffraction pattern and the fairly large number of freely refinable parameters, refinements with different combinations of SCs produce results almost indistinguishable from a statistical point of view, albeit showing significant differences from a structural point of view.
2021
structure refinement; Rietveld method; scattering curves; tremolite; asbestos
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01a Articolo in rivista
Recommended X-ray single-crystal structure refinement and Rietveld refinement procedure for tremolite / Ballirano, Paolo; Celata, Beatrice; Pacella, Alessandro; Bosi, Ferdinando. - In: ACTA CRYSTALLOGRAPHICA. SECTION B, STRUCTURAL SCIENCE, CRYSTAL ENGINEERING AND MATERIALS. - ISSN 2052-5206. - 77:4(2021), pp. 537-549. [10.1107/S2052520621004844]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1561195
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