FOOT (FragmentatiOn Of Target) is an applied nuclear physics experiment conceived to conduct high-precision cross section measurements of nuclear fragmentation processes relevant for particle therapy and radiation protection in space. These measurements are important to estimate the physical and biological effects of nuclear fragments, which are produced when energetic particle beams penetrate human tissue. A component of the FOOT experiment is the ΔE-TOF system. It is designed to measure energy loss and time-of-flight of nuclear fragments produced in particle collisions in thin targets in order to extract their charge and velocity. The ΔE-TOF system is composed of a start counter, providing the start time for the time-of-flight, and a 40 × 40 cm2 wall of thin plastic scintillator bars, providing the arrival time and energy loss of the fragments passing through the detector. Particle charge discrimination can be achieved by correlating the energy loss in the scintillator bars with the measured time-of-flight. Recently, we have built a full-size ΔE-TOF detector. In this work, we describe the energy and time-of-flight calibration procedure and assess the performance of this system. We use data acquired during beam tests at CNAO with proton and 12C beams and at GSI with 16O beams in the energy range relevant for particle therapy, i.e., from 60 to 400 MeV/u. For heavy fragments (C and O), we obtain energy and time resolutions ranging from 4.0 to 5.2% and from 54 to 76 ps, respectively. The procedure is also applied to a fragmentation measurement of a 400 MeV/u 16O beam on a 5 mm carbon target, showing that the system is able to discriminate the charges of impinging fragments.

Charge identification of nuclear fragments with the FOOT Time-Of-Flight system / Kraan, A. C.; Zarrella, R.; Alexandrov, A.; Alpat, B.; Ambrosi, G.; Argiro, S.; Arteche Diaz, R.; Bartosik, N.; Battistoni, G.; Belcari, N.; Bellinzona, E.; Biondi, S.; Bruni, G.; Carra, P.; Cerello, P.; Ciarrocchi, E.; Clozza, A.; Colombi, S.; De Lellis, G.; Del Guerra, A.; De Simoni, M.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Donetti, M.; Dong, Y.; Durante, M.; Faccini, R.; Ferrero, V.; Fiandrini, E.; Finck, C.; Fiorina, E.; Fischetti, M.; Francesconi, M.; Franchini, M.; Franciosini, G.; Galati, G.; Galli, L.; Gentile, V.; Giraudo, G.; Hetzel, R.; Iarocci, E.; Ionica, M.; Iuliano, A.; Kanxheri, K.; Lante, V.; La Tessa, C.; Laurenza, M.; Lauria, A.; Lopez Torres, E.; Marafini, M.; Massimi, C.; Mattei, I.; Mengarelli, A.; Moggi, A.; Montesi, M. C.; Morone, M. C.; Morrocchi, M.; Muraro, S.; Murtas, F.; Pastore, A.; Pastrone, N.; Patera, V.; Pennazio, F.; Placidi, P.; Pullia, M.; Raffaelli, F.; Ramello, L.; Ridolfi, R.; Rosso, V.; Sanelli, C.; Sarti, A.; Sartorelli, G.; Sato, O.; Savazzi, S.; Scavarda, L.; Schiavi, A.; Schuy, C.; Scifoni, E.; Sciubba, A.; Secher, A.; Selvi, M.; Servoli, L.; Silvestre, G.; Sitta, M.; Spighi, R.; Spiriti, E.; Sportelli, G.; Stahl, A.; Tioukov, V.; Tomassini, S.; Tommasino, F.; Toppi, M.; Traini, G.; Valle, S. M.; Vanstalle, M.; Villa, M.; Weber, U.; Zoccoli, A.; Bisogni, M. G.. - In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH. SECTION A, ACCELERATORS, SPECTROMETERS, DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT. - ISSN 1872-9576. - 1001:(2021), pp. 1-10. [10.1016/j.nima.2021.165206]

Charge identification of nuclear fragments with the FOOT Time-Of-Flight system

Ambrosi G.;Ciarrocchi E.;De Simoni M.;Faccini R.;Finck C.;Fischetti M.;Franchini M.;Franciosini G.;Giraudo G.;Iarocci E.;Ionica M.;Mattei I.;Murtas F.;Patera V.;Raffaelli F.;Ridolfi R.;Sarti A.;Sartorelli G.;Schiavi A.;Scifoni E.;Sciubba A.;Sportelli G.;Toppi M.;Traini G.;
2021

Abstract

FOOT (FragmentatiOn Of Target) is an applied nuclear physics experiment conceived to conduct high-precision cross section measurements of nuclear fragmentation processes relevant for particle therapy and radiation protection in space. These measurements are important to estimate the physical and biological effects of nuclear fragments, which are produced when energetic particle beams penetrate human tissue. A component of the FOOT experiment is the ΔE-TOF system. It is designed to measure energy loss and time-of-flight of nuclear fragments produced in particle collisions in thin targets in order to extract their charge and velocity. The ΔE-TOF system is composed of a start counter, providing the start time for the time-of-flight, and a 40 × 40 cm2 wall of thin plastic scintillator bars, providing the arrival time and energy loss of the fragments passing through the detector. Particle charge discrimination can be achieved by correlating the energy loss in the scintillator bars with the measured time-of-flight. Recently, we have built a full-size ΔE-TOF detector. In this work, we describe the energy and time-of-flight calibration procedure and assess the performance of this system. We use data acquired during beam tests at CNAO with proton and 12C beams and at GSI with 16O beams in the energy range relevant for particle therapy, i.e., from 60 to 400 MeV/u. For heavy fragments (C and O), we obtain energy and time resolutions ranging from 4.0 to 5.2% and from 54 to 76 ps, respectively. The procedure is also applied to a fragmentation measurement of a 400 MeV/u 16O beam on a 5 mm carbon target, showing that the system is able to discriminate the charges of impinging fragments.
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