The Pleistocene (~460–265 ka) San Venanzo volcanic complex belongs to the IAP (Intra-Apennine Province) in central Italy, which comprises at least four small Pleistocene monogenetic volcanoes plus several unrooted pyroclastic deposits with peculiar mineralogical and whole-rock chemical compositions. San Venanzo products are strongly SiO2-undersaturated, CaO- and MgO-rich and show ultrapotassic serial character. The relatively common occurrence of calcite in the pyroclastic rocks and the overall high CaO content are interpreted in literature as primary mineral. The main rock facies at San Venanzo are calcite-rich scoria and lapilli tuffs, with minor massive lava flows, and a rare pegmatoid variant (melilitolitic pockets). All the San Venanzo rocks are feldspar-free, with a typical paragenesis of forsteritic olivine, non-stoichiometric Ca-rich diopside, melilite, leucite, kalsilite, opaque minerals, nepheline, phlogopite, calcite, apatite, cuspidine, wollastonite, kirschsteinite-monticellite s.s. ± glass and other minor and very rare minerals typical of agpaitic melts. Based on petrographic analyses, the studied rocks can be classified as olivine melilitites, olivine leucite melilitites, venanzites (a local variant of kamafugites), calcite leucite melilitolites and Ca-rich olivine leucite melilitite tuffs. Mass balance calculations indicate a direct genetic link between the lava bodies and the pegmatoid melilitolitic pocket through a fractional crystallization process characterized by the removal of ~74% of a melilite-bearing uganditic cumulate made up of melilite, leucite, olivine, kalsilite and chromite. Primitive mantle-normalized patterns of the lavas and tuffs are rather spiked and share negative anomalies for Ba, Nb, Ta, P and Ti resembling typical magmas generated by supra-subduction mantle wedge. These compositions are very different from the only two other kamafugite localities outside Italy (Toro Ankole and Virunga in the East Africa Rift and Alto Paranaiba Igneous Province in SE Brazil). The melilitolite sample is more incompatible element-enriched than the other San Venanzo volcanic rocks, coherently with its evolved liquid composition proposed here. Major and trace element contents indicate a general depletion proportional to the amount of CaO content. The negative trends in Harker-type diagrams with CaO as abscissa are compatible with a process of variable interaction between a silicate magma with sedimentary marly carbonates/limestones. The presence of Mg-rich (Fo97–92) and rim-ward CaO-enriched (up to 1.72 wt%) euhedral olivine, as well as the presence of thin kirschsteinite rim around olivine crystals agree with a process of crustal carbonate assimilation by an originally strongly SiO2-undersaturated silicate magma. On the other hand, the lack of feldspars even in the rocks with the highest SiO2, the high CaO content, and the extreme SiO2-undersaturation of San Venanzo rocks exclude their derivation from a simple peridotitic source. In order to generate these peculiar compositions, the presence of a SiO2-K2O-CaO-rich H2O-bearing component, identified in a carbonated phlogopite peridotite is required. The results of different isotopic systematics (Sr-Nd-Pb-He-Ne-Ar) presented here are compatible with a process of crustal contamination both at mantle source levels (to explain the general N-S isotopic trends recorded in Quaternary volcanic rocks of Italian peninsula and Sicily) and with interaction of ultrabasic melts with limestones at shallow crustal depths.
Strongly SiO2-undersaturated, CaO-rich kamafugitic Pleistocene magmatism in Central Italy (San Venanzo volcanic complex) and the role of shallow depth limestone assimilation / Lustrino, M.; Ronca, S.; Caracausi, A.; Ventura Bordenca, C.; Agostini, S.; Faraone, D. B.. - In: EARTH-SCIENCE REVIEWS. - ISSN 0012-8252. - 208(2020).
|Titolo:||Strongly SiO2-undersaturated, CaO-rich kamafugitic Pleistocene magmatism in Central Italy (San Venanzo volcanic complex) and the role of shallow depth limestone assimilation|
LUSTRINO, Michele [Conceptualization] (Corresponding author)
RONCA, Sara [Membro del Collaboration Group]
|Data di pubblicazione:||2020|
|Citazione:||Strongly SiO2-undersaturated, CaO-rich kamafugitic Pleistocene magmatism in Central Italy (San Venanzo volcanic complex) and the role of shallow depth limestone assimilation / Lustrino, M.; Ronca, S.; Caracausi, A.; Ventura Bordenca, C.; Agostini, S.; Faraone, D. B.. - In: EARTH-SCIENCE REVIEWS. - ISSN 0012-8252. - 208(2020).|
|Appartiene alla tipologia:||01a Articolo in rivista|