Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), the catalytic subunit of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), catalyzes the methylation of lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27) up to its trimethylated form (H3K27me), inducing by this way block of transcription and gene silencing. High levels of H3K27me3 have been found in both hematological malignancies and solid cancers, due to EZH2 overexpression and/or EZH2 mutation. From 2012, a number of highly potent and selective catalytic inhibitors of EZH2 have been reported, almost all bearing a 2-pyridone group in their structure. Typically, 2-pyridone inhibitors are selective for EZH2 over other methyltransferases, and some of them are specific for EZH2 over EZH1, others behave as dual EZH2/EZH1 inhibitors. The 2-pyridone moiety was crucial for the enzyme inhibition, as revealed later by crystallographic studies because it occupies partially the site for the co-substrate SAM (or the by-product, SAH) in the binding pocket of the enzyme, accounting for the SAM-competitive mechanism of action displayed by all the 2-pyridone inhibitors. The 2-pyridone warhead is linked to a support substructure, that can be either a bicyclic heteroaromatic ring (such as indazole, see for instance EPZ005687 and UNC1999, or indole, see for instance GSK126, EI1, and the more recent CPI-1205) or a simple monocyclic (hetero) aromatic ring (tazemetostat, MC3629, (R)-OR-S1/2), eventually annulated with the amide chain carrying the 2-pyridone group (3,4-dihydroisoquinoline-1(2H)-ones). Different substitutions at the support moiety influence the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the compounds as well as their water solubility. In cancer diseases, the first reported 2-pyridone inhibitors displayed high antiproliferative effects in vitro and in vivo in lymphomas characterized by mutant EZH2 (such as Y641N), but the most recent compounds exert their anticancer activity against tumors with wild-type EZH2 as well. The dual EZH2/1 inhibitors have been recently reported to be more effective than EZH2 selective inhibitors in specific leukemias including leukemias cancer stem cells.
Six years (2012-2018) of researches on catalytic EZH2 inhibitors: the boom of the 2-pyridone compounds / Fioravanti, R; Stazi, G; Zwergel, C; Valente, S; Mai, A.. - In: THE CHEMICAL RECORD. - ISSN 1527-8999. - 18:12(2018), pp. 1818-1832.
|Titolo:||Six years (2012-2018) of researches on catalytic EZH2 inhibitors: the boom of the 2-pyridone compounds|
MAI, Antonello (Corresponding author)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2018|
|Citazione:||Six years (2012-2018) of researches on catalytic EZH2 inhibitors: the boom of the 2-pyridone compounds / Fioravanti, R; Stazi, G; Zwergel, C; Valente, S; Mai, A.. - In: THE CHEMICAL RECORD. - ISSN 1527-8999. - 18:12(2018), pp. 1818-1832.|
|Appartiene alla tipologia:||01a Articolo in rivista|