We investigate the controllability of quantum systems in two different settings: the standard "closed" setting, in which a quantum system is seen as isolated and the control problem is formulated on the Schrödinger equation; the open setting that describes a quantum system in interaction with a larger one, of which just qualitative parameters are known, by means of the Lindblad equation on states. In the context of closed systems we focus our attention to an interesting class of models, namely the spin-boson models. The latter describe the interaction between a 2-level quantum system and finitely many distinguished modes of a bosonic field. We discuss two prototypical examples, the Rabi model and the Jaynes-Cummings model, which despite their age are still very popular in several fields of quantum physics. Notably, in the context of cavity Quantum Electro Dynamics (C-QED) they provide an approximate yet accurate description of the dynamics of a 2-level atom in a resonant microwave cavity, as in recent experiments of S. Haroche. We investigate the controllability properties of these models, analyzing two different types of control operators acting on the bosonic part, corresponding -in the application to cavity QED- to an external electric and magnetic field, respectively. We review some recent results and prove the approximate controllability of the Jaynes-Cummings model with these controls. This result is based on a spectral analysis exploiting the non-resonances of the spectrum. As far as the relation between the Rabi and the Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonians concerns, we treat the so called rotating wave approximation in a rigorous framework. We formulate the problem as an adiabatic limit in which the detuning frequency and the interaction strength parameter goes to zero, known as the weak-coupling regime. We prove that, under certain hypothesis on the ratio between the detuning and the coupling, the Jaynes-Cumming and the Rabi dynamics exhibit the same behaviour, more precisely the evolution operators they generate are close in norm. In the framework of open quantum systems we investigate the controllability of the Lindblad equation. We consider a control acting adiabatically on the internal part of the system, which we see as a degree of freedom that can be used to contrast the action of the environment. The adiabatic action of the control is chosen to produce a robust transition. We prove, in the prototype case of a two-level system, that the system approach a set of equilibrium points determined by the environment, i.e. the parameters that specify the Lindblad operator. On that set the system can be adiabatically steered choosing a suitable control. The analysis is based on the application of geometrical singular perturbation methods.
|Titolo:||On the controllability of the quantum dynamics of closed and open systems|
|Data di discussione:||26-gen-2018|
|Appartiene alla tipologia:||07a Tesi di Dottorato|