BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a severe complication in HIV-1-infected patients with Trans-activator of transcription (HIV-1 Tat) protein being recognized as a major underlying cause. Beside its direct enterotoxic effects, Tat protein has been recently shown to affect enteric glial cell (EGC) activity. EGCs regulate intestinal inflammatory responses by secreting pro-inflammatory molecules; nonetheless, they might also release immune-regulatory factors, as palmytoilethanolamide (PEA), which exerts anti-inflammatory effects by activating PPARα receptors. We aimed at clarifying whether EGCs are involved in HIV-1 Tat-induced diarrhea and if PEA exerts antidiarrheal activity. METHODS: Diarrhea was induced by intracolonic administration of HIV-1 Tat protein in rats at day 1. PEA alone or in the presence of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) antagonists was given intraperitoneally from day 2 to day 7. S100B, iNOS, NF-kappaB, TLR4 and GFAP expression were evaluated in submucosal plexi, while S100B and NO levels were measured in EGC submucosal plexi lysates, respectively. To verify whether PEA effects were PPARα-mediated, PPARα-/- mice were also used. After 7 days from diarrhea induction, endogenous PEA levels were measured in submucosal plexi homogenates deriving from rats and PPARα-/- mice. RESULTS: HIV-1 Tat protein induced rapid onset diarrhea alongside with a significant activation of EGCs. Tat administration significantly increased all hallmarks of neuroinflammation by triggering TLR4 and NF-kappaB activation and S100B and iNOS expression. Endogenous PEA levels were increased following HIV-1 Tat exposure in both wildtype and knockout animals. In PPARα-/- mice, PEA displayed no effects. In wildtype rats, PEA, via PPARα-dependent mechanism, resulted in a significant antidiarrheal activity in parallel with marked reduction of EGC-sustained neuroinflammation. CONCLUSIONS: EGCs mediate HIV-1 Tat-induced diarrhea by sustaining the intestinal neuroinflammatory response. These effects are regulated by PEA through a selective PPARα-dependent mechanism. PEA might be considered as an adjuvant therapy in HIV-1-induced diarrhea.

HIV-1 Tat-induced diarrhea is improved by the PPAR alpha agonist, palmitoylethanolamide, by suppressing the activation of enteric glia / Sarnelli, Giovanni; Seguella, Luisa; Pesce, Marcella; Lu, Jie; Gigli, Stefano; Bruzzese, Eugenia; Lattanzi, Roberta; D'Alessandro, Alessandra; Cuomo, Rosario; Steardo, Luca; Esposito, Giuseppe. - In: JOURNAL OF NEUROINFLAMMATION. - ISSN 1742-2094. - ELETTRONICO. - 15:1(2018). [10.1186/s12974-018-1126-4]

HIV-1 Tat-induced diarrhea is improved by the PPAR alpha agonist, palmitoylethanolamide, by suppressing the activation of enteric glia

Seguella Luisa
Methodology
;
Gigli Stefano
Validation
;
Lattanzi Roberta
Methodology
;
Cuomo Rosario
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Steardo Luca
Methodology
;
Esposito Giuseppe
Conceptualization
2018

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a severe complication in HIV-1-infected patients with Trans-activator of transcription (HIV-1 Tat) protein being recognized as a major underlying cause. Beside its direct enterotoxic effects, Tat protein has been recently shown to affect enteric glial cell (EGC) activity. EGCs regulate intestinal inflammatory responses by secreting pro-inflammatory molecules; nonetheless, they might also release immune-regulatory factors, as palmytoilethanolamide (PEA), which exerts anti-inflammatory effects by activating PPARα receptors. We aimed at clarifying whether EGCs are involved in HIV-1 Tat-induced diarrhea and if PEA exerts antidiarrheal activity. METHODS: Diarrhea was induced by intracolonic administration of HIV-1 Tat protein in rats at day 1. PEA alone or in the presence of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) antagonists was given intraperitoneally from day 2 to day 7. S100B, iNOS, NF-kappaB, TLR4 and GFAP expression were evaluated in submucosal plexi, while S100B and NO levels were measured in EGC submucosal plexi lysates, respectively. To verify whether PEA effects were PPARα-mediated, PPARα-/- mice were also used. After 7 days from diarrhea induction, endogenous PEA levels were measured in submucosal plexi homogenates deriving from rats and PPARα-/- mice. RESULTS: HIV-1 Tat protein induced rapid onset diarrhea alongside with a significant activation of EGCs. Tat administration significantly increased all hallmarks of neuroinflammation by triggering TLR4 and NF-kappaB activation and S100B and iNOS expression. Endogenous PEA levels were increased following HIV-1 Tat exposure in both wildtype and knockout animals. In PPARα-/- mice, PEA displayed no effects. In wildtype rats, PEA, via PPARα-dependent mechanism, resulted in a significant antidiarrheal activity in parallel with marked reduction of EGC-sustained neuroinflammation. CONCLUSIONS: EGCs mediate HIV-1 Tat-induced diarrhea by sustaining the intestinal neuroinflammatory response. These effects are regulated by PEA through a selective PPARα-dependent mechanism. PEA might be considered as an adjuvant therapy in HIV-1-induced diarrhea.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1088896
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