Late breast implant seroma may be the presentation of a breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BI-ALCL), which claims for a prompt recognition. However, BI-ALCL diagnosis on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) might be challenging for pathologists lacking experience with peri-implant breast effusions. Sixty-seven late breast implant seromas collected by FNA from 50 patients were evaluated by Papanicolaou smear stain and immunocytochemistry on cell blocks. A diagnostic algorithm based on the cellular composition, cell morphology and percentage of CD30+ cells was developed. Histological evaluation of the corresponding peri-prosthetic capsules was also performed. Most of the effusions (91% of the samples) were classified as reactive and 9% as BI-ALCL. In the BI-ALCL cases, medium-to-large atypical cells expressing CD30 represented more than 70% of the cellularity, whereas in in the reactive effusions CD30+ elements were extremely rare (<5%) and consisted of non-atypical elements. The reactive effusions were categorized into three patterns: i) acute infiltrate with prominent neutrophilic component (33% of the samples); ii) mixed infiltrate characterized by a variable number of neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages (30% of the samples); iii) chronic infiltrate composed predominantly of T lymphocytes or macrophages with only sporadic granulocytes (37% of the samples). The inflammatory cytological patterns were consistent with the histology of the corresponding capsules. Our results indicate that cytological analysis of late breast implant effusions, supported by the knowledge of the heterogeneous cytomorphological spectrum of late seromas, is a valuable approach for the early recognition of BI-ALCL.

Cytological diagnostic features of late breast implant seromas. From reactive to anaplastic large cell lymphoma / DI NAPOLI, Arianna; Pepe, Giuseppina; Giarnieri, Enrico; Cippitelli, Claudia; Bonifacino, Adriana; Mattei, Mauro; Martelli, Maurizio; Falasca, Carlo; Cox, Maria Christina; Santino, Iolanda; Giovagnoli, Maria Rosaria. - In: PLOS ONE. - ISSN 1932-6203. - ELETTRONICO. - 12:7(2017), pp. 1-20. [10.1371/journal.pone.0181097]

Cytological diagnostic features of late breast implant seromas. From reactive to anaplastic large cell lymphoma

DI NAPOLI, Arianna;PEPE, GIUSEPPINA;GIARNIERI, Enrico;Cippitelli, Claudia;BONIFACINO, Adriana;MARTELLI, Maurizio;FALASCA, CARLO;SANTINO, Iolanda;GIOVAGNOLI, Maria Rosaria
2017

Abstract

Late breast implant seroma may be the presentation of a breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BI-ALCL), which claims for a prompt recognition. However, BI-ALCL diagnosis on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) might be challenging for pathologists lacking experience with peri-implant breast effusions. Sixty-seven late breast implant seromas collected by FNA from 50 patients were evaluated by Papanicolaou smear stain and immunocytochemistry on cell blocks. A diagnostic algorithm based on the cellular composition, cell morphology and percentage of CD30+ cells was developed. Histological evaluation of the corresponding peri-prosthetic capsules was also performed. Most of the effusions (91% of the samples) were classified as reactive and 9% as BI-ALCL. In the BI-ALCL cases, medium-to-large atypical cells expressing CD30 represented more than 70% of the cellularity, whereas in in the reactive effusions CD30+ elements were extremely rare (<5%) and consisted of non-atypical elements. The reactive effusions were categorized into three patterns: i) acute infiltrate with prominent neutrophilic component (33% of the samples); ii) mixed infiltrate characterized by a variable number of neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages (30% of the samples); iii) chronic infiltrate composed predominantly of T lymphocytes or macrophages with only sporadic granulocytes (37% of the samples). The inflammatory cytological patterns were consistent with the histology of the corresponding capsules. Our results indicate that cytological analysis of late breast implant effusions, supported by the knowledge of the heterogeneous cytomorphological spectrum of late seromas, is a valuable approach for the early recognition of BI-ALCL.
2017
cd30(+) t-cells; lymphoproliferative disorder; hodgkin-lymphoma; sternberg cells; flow-cytometry; expression; receptor; predominance; malignancies; effusions
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01a Articolo in rivista
Cytological diagnostic features of late breast implant seromas. From reactive to anaplastic large cell lymphoma / DI NAPOLI, Arianna; Pepe, Giuseppina; Giarnieri, Enrico; Cippitelli, Claudia; Bonifacino, Adriana; Mattei, Mauro; Martelli, Maurizio; Falasca, Carlo; Cox, Maria Christina; Santino, Iolanda; Giovagnoli, Maria Rosaria. - In: PLOS ONE. - ISSN 1932-6203. - ELETTRONICO. - 12:7(2017), pp. 1-20. [10.1371/journal.pone.0181097]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/992015
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