Research is focused on CpG islands and on the mechanism that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation uses to defend the unmethylated state of these important DNA sequences which are located in the promoter regions of the housekeeping genes having a role of transcription regulators. Data here reported show that inhibition of PARP activity allows the diffuse insertion of methyl groups onto some CpG islands and in particular on the CpG island which is located in the promoter region of Dnmt1 gene. Hence, following inhibition of PARPs activity, this promoter loses its protection against methylation becoming silenced through methylation as shown by analyses with Methylation Sensitive PCR (MS-PCR) and sequencing after bisulphite treatment. Analyses of Western Blotting, RT-PCR and Real-time RT-PCR confirm that the gene has undergone silencing. The role of ADP-ribose polymers in silencing Dnmt1 has been demonstrated by additional experiments in which overexpression of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase leads to reduction of ADP-ribose polymers in nuclei associated to a sharp decrease of Dnmt1 level respect to control. A parallel genome-wide methyl-sensitive restriction assay demonstrates that the variation of Dnmt1 level is followed by a bimodal alteration of DNA methylation pattern. In fact, the inhibition of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation initially causes an increase in methyl-group insertion onto DNA while this phenomenon is reversed after prolonged treatments and demethylation is detected within Alu sequences. Considering the important role played by Dnmt1 in the epigenetic scenario, these data lead us to think about what happens in tumor cells where both anomalous methylation of some CpG islands and diffuse hypomethylation are present. These findings open up a new path into epigenetic research in tumors. What is remarkable is that the demethylated pattern found in Alu sequences after treatment of cells with 3-ABA for 96 hours is very similar to the one found on DNA from cells treated with 5-AZA for the same time. The discovery of a DNA demethylating activity dependent on the use of inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation process increases the knowledge of mechanism by which these inhibitors enhance the cytotoxicity of other anticancer agents.

Methylation status of Dnmt1 promoter depends on poly(ADP-ribosy)lation

Zampieri, Michele
2007-02-08

Abstract

Research is focused on CpG islands and on the mechanism that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation uses to defend the unmethylated state of these important DNA sequences which are located in the promoter regions of the housekeeping genes having a role of transcription regulators. Data here reported show that inhibition of PARP activity allows the diffuse insertion of methyl groups onto some CpG islands and in particular on the CpG island which is located in the promoter region of Dnmt1 gene. Hence, following inhibition of PARPs activity, this promoter loses its protection against methylation becoming silenced through methylation as shown by analyses with Methylation Sensitive PCR (MS-PCR) and sequencing after bisulphite treatment. Analyses of Western Blotting, RT-PCR and Real-time RT-PCR confirm that the gene has undergone silencing. The role of ADP-ribose polymers in silencing Dnmt1 has been demonstrated by additional experiments in which overexpression of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase leads to reduction of ADP-ribose polymers in nuclei associated to a sharp decrease of Dnmt1 level respect to control. A parallel genome-wide methyl-sensitive restriction assay demonstrates that the variation of Dnmt1 level is followed by a bimodal alteration of DNA methylation pattern. In fact, the inhibition of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation initially causes an increase in methyl-group insertion onto DNA while this phenomenon is reversed after prolonged treatments and demethylation is detected within Alu sequences. Considering the important role played by Dnmt1 in the epigenetic scenario, these data lead us to think about what happens in tumor cells where both anomalous methylation of some CpG islands and diffuse hypomethylation are present. These findings open up a new path into epigenetic research in tumors. What is remarkable is that the demethylated pattern found in Alu sequences after treatment of cells with 3-ABA for 96 hours is very similar to the one found on DNA from cells treated with 5-AZA for the same time. The discovery of a DNA demethylating activity dependent on the use of inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation process increases the knowledge of mechanism by which these inhibitors enhance the cytotoxicity of other anticancer agents.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11573/916862
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