Mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs) are subdomains of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that interact with mitochondria. This membrane scrambling between ER and mitochondria appears to play a critical role in the earliest steps of autophagy. Recently, lipid microdomains, i.e. lipid rafts, have been identified as further actors of the autophagic process. In the present work, a series of biochemical and molecular analyses has been carried out in human fibroblasts with the specific aim of characterizing lipid rafts in MAMs and to decipher their possible implication in the autophagosome formation. In fact, the presence of lipid microdomains in MAMs has been detected and, in these structures, a molecular interaction of the ganglioside GD3, a paradigmatic “brick” of lipid rafts, with core-initiator proteins of autophagy, such as AMBRA1 and WIPI1, was revealed. This association seems thus to take place in the early phases of autophagic process in which MAMs have been hypothesized to play a key role. The functional activity of GD3 was suggested by the experiments carried out by knocking down ST8SIA1 gene expression, i.e., the synthase that leads to the ganglioside formation. This experimental condition results in fact in the impairment of the ER-mitochondria crosstalk and the subsequent hindering of autophagosome nucleation. We thus hypothesize that MAM raft-like microdomains could be pivotal in the initial organelle scrambling activity that finally leads to the formation of autophagosome. Introduction The interaction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with mito- chondria occurs via certain subdomains of the ER, named mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), which allow membrane “scrambling” between these organelles and contrib- utes to the complex series of ER functions.1-3 Indeed, several regions of close apposition between the ER and mitochondria were detected by studies carried out several years ago.4,5 How- ever, since these studies provided only ultrastructural observa- tions, these reports remained neglected for a long time. In particular, while morphological evidence of the physical juxta- position between ER and mitochondria was described since 1959,6 it was experimentally proven only 30 y later. In fact, ana- lyzing ER fractions copurified with mitochondria in velocity sedimentation assays, mainly from rat liver cells, it was observed that mitochondria can tightly be associated with ele- ments of the ER and that the communication and intermixing between ER and mitochondria can be mediated by MAMs.7-12 These works also showed that these cosedimenting fractions were enriched in enzymes responsible for the synthesis of lipids. These findings suggested that MAMs could act as sites.
Evidence for the involvement of lipid rafts localized at the ER-mitochondria associated membranes in autophagosome formation / Garofalo, Tina; Matarrese, Paola; Manganelli, Valeria; Marconi, Matteo; Tinari, Antonella; Gambardella, Lucrezia; Faggioni, Alberto; Misasi, Roberta; Sorice, Maurizio; Malorni, Walter. - In: AUTOPHAGY. - ISSN 1554-8627. - STAMPA. - 12:6(2016), pp. 917-935.
|Titolo:||Evidence for the involvement of lipid rafts localized at the ER-mitochondria associated membranes in autophagosome formation|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2016|
|Citazione:||Evidence for the involvement of lipid rafts localized at the ER-mitochondria associated membranes in autophagosome formation / Garofalo, Tina; Matarrese, Paola; Manganelli, Valeria; Marconi, Matteo; Tinari, Antonella; Gambardella, Lucrezia; Faggioni, Alberto; Misasi, Roberta; Sorice, Maurizio; Malorni, Walter. - In: AUTOPHAGY. - ISSN 1554-8627. - STAMPA. - 12:6(2016), pp. 917-935.|
|Appartiene alla tipologia:||01a Articolo in rivista|