Interventions of paediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome are complex, varied and multidisciplinary. The goal of the treatment is to restore optimal breathing during the night and to relieve associated symptoms. Evidence suggests that the surgical intervention with removal of the tonsils and adenoids will lead to significant improvements in the most incomplicated cases, as recently reported from a meta-analysis. However, post-operative persistence of this syndrome in paediatric population is more frequent than expected, which supports the idea of the complexity of this syndrome. Adenotomy alone may not be sufficient in children with OSAS, because it does not address oropharyngeal obstruction secondary to tonsillar hyperplasia. Continuous positive airway pressure can effectively treat this syndrome in selected groups of children, improving both nocturnal and daytime symptoms, but poor adherence is a limiting factor. For this reason, CPAP is not recommended as first-line therapy for OSAS when adenotonsillectomy is an option. It is now being investigated the incorporation of nonsurgical approaches for milder forms and for residual OSAS after surgical intervention. Althought adeno-tonsillar hypertrophy is the most common for OSAS in children; obesity is emerging as an equally important etiological factor. Therefore an intensive weight reduction program and adequate sleep hygiene are also important lifestyle changes that may be very effective in mitigating the symptoms of this syndrome. Pharmacological therapy (leukotriene antagonists, topical nasal steroids) is usually use for mild forms of OSAS and in children with associated allergic diseases. Special orthodontic treatment and oropharyngeal exercises are a relatively new and promising alternative therapeutic modality used in selected groups of children with OSAS.
SURGICAL AND NON-SURGICAL THERAPY OF OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME IN CHILDREN / Šujanská, A; Ďurdík, P; Rabasco, Jole; Vitelli, Ottavio; Pietropaoli, Nicoletta; Villa, MARIA PIA. - In: ACTA MEDICA. - ISSN 1211-4286. - 57(4):(2014), pp. 135-141. [10.14712/18059694.2015.78]