Aβ-induced astrogliosis can worsen the eziopathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) by the release of pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant mediators. Activated glial cells may release also pro-angiogenic molecules. The role of angiogenesis in AD is still controversial: although angiogenesis brings oxygen and nutrients to injured tissue, it may also exacerbate reactive gliosis. Moreover, by altering blood-brain barrier permeability pro-angiogenic mediators promote passage of inflammatory/immune-competent cells into the brain, thereby exacerbating gliosis. The release of pro-angiogenic factors during astrogliosis may thus be a key-step in controlling AD progression. The endogenous fatty acid amide, palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), is a pleiotropic mediator exerting anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and anti-angiogenic effects in several in vitro and in vivo models of chronic-degenerative disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of PEA in AD angiogenesis and neuroinflammation by using conditioned medium from untreated and Aβ-treated C6 rat astroglioma cells and HUVEC human endothelial cells. PEA (10-8-10-6 M) concentration-dependently reduced expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic markers in Aβ (1 μg/mL)-stimulated C6 cells. Moreover, culture medium from PEA-treated C6 cells reduced HUVEC cell proliferation as compared to cells treated with conditioned medium from Aβ-treated C6 cells. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that PEA treatment inhibited nuclear levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (the main pro-angiogenic pathway) and cytoplasmic vascular endothelial growth factor in HUVEC cells receiving C6 conditioned medium. Finally, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha inhibitor GW6471, added to Aβ-treated C6 cells blocked all PEA effects in this model, suggesting that PEA acts through a proliferator-activated receptor alpha-dependent mechanism on astroglial cells. Collectively, these data support the potential therapeutic utility of PEA in AD.

Palmitoylethanolamide regulates production of pro-angiogenic mediators in a model of β amyloid-induced astrogliosis in vitro / Cipriano, M; Esposito, Giuseppe; Negro, L; Capoccia, Elena; Sarnelli, G; Scuderi, Caterina; de Filippis, D; Steardo, Luca; Iuvone, T.. - In: CNS & NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS. DRUG TARGETS. - ISSN 1871-5273. - ELETTRONICO. - 14:7(2015), pp. 828-837. [10.2174/1871527314666150317224155]

Palmitoylethanolamide regulates production of pro-angiogenic mediators in a model of β amyloid-induced astrogliosis in vitro.

ESPOSITO, GIUSEPPE;CAPOCCIA, ELENA;SCUDERI, CATERINA;STEARDO, LUCA;
2015

Abstract

Aβ-induced astrogliosis can worsen the eziopathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) by the release of pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant mediators. Activated glial cells may release also pro-angiogenic molecules. The role of angiogenesis in AD is still controversial: although angiogenesis brings oxygen and nutrients to injured tissue, it may also exacerbate reactive gliosis. Moreover, by altering blood-brain barrier permeability pro-angiogenic mediators promote passage of inflammatory/immune-competent cells into the brain, thereby exacerbating gliosis. The release of pro-angiogenic factors during astrogliosis may thus be a key-step in controlling AD progression. The endogenous fatty acid amide, palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), is a pleiotropic mediator exerting anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and anti-angiogenic effects in several in vitro and in vivo models of chronic-degenerative disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of PEA in AD angiogenesis and neuroinflammation by using conditioned medium from untreated and Aβ-treated C6 rat astroglioma cells and HUVEC human endothelial cells. PEA (10-8-10-6 M) concentration-dependently reduced expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic markers in Aβ (1 μg/mL)-stimulated C6 cells. Moreover, culture medium from PEA-treated C6 cells reduced HUVEC cell proliferation as compared to cells treated with conditioned medium from Aβ-treated C6 cells. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that PEA treatment inhibited nuclear levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (the main pro-angiogenic pathway) and cytoplasmic vascular endothelial growth factor in HUVEC cells receiving C6 conditioned medium. Finally, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha inhibitor GW6471, added to Aβ-treated C6 cells blocked all PEA effects in this model, suggesting that PEA acts through a proliferator-activated receptor alpha-dependent mechanism on astroglial cells. Collectively, these data support the potential therapeutic utility of PEA in AD.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/780478
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