This paper focus on the properties of boundary layers in periodic homogenization in rectangular domains which are either fixed or have an oscillating boundary. Such boundary layers are highly oscillating near the boundary and decay exponentially fast in the interior to a non-zero limit that we call boundary layer tail. The influence of these boundary layer tails on interior error estimates is emphasized. They mainly have two effects (at first order with respect to the period ε): first, they add a dispersive term to the homogenized equation, and second, they yield an effective Fourier boundary condition.
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