The insulin receptor initiates insulin action by phosphorylating multiple intracellular substrates. Previously, we have demonstrated that insulin receptor substrates (IRS)-1 and -2 can mediate insulin's action to promote translocation of GLUT4 glucose transporters to the cell surface in rat adipose cells. Although IRS-1, -2, and -4 are similar in overall structure, IRS-3 is approximately 50% shorter and differs with respect to sites of tyrosine phosphorylation. Nevertheless, as demonstrated in this study, both IRS-3 and IRS-4 can also stimulate translocation of GLUT4. Rat adipose cells were cotransfected with expression vectors for hemagglutinin (HA) epitope-tagged GLUT4 (GLUT4-HA) and human IRS-1, murine IRS-3, or human IRS-4. Overexpression of IRS-1 led to a 2-fold increase in cell surface GLUT4-HA in cells incubated in the absence of insulin; overexpression of either IRS-3 or IRS-4 elicited a larger increase in cell surface GLUT4-HA. Indeed, the effect of IRS-3 in the absence of insulin was approximately 40% greater than the effect of a maximally stimulating concentration of insulin in cells not overexpressing IRS proteins. Because phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase is essential for insulin-stimulated translocation of GLUT4, we also studied a mutant IRS-3 molecule (IRS-3-F4) in which Phe was substituted for Tyr in all four YXXM motifs (the phosphorylation sites predicted to bind to and activate PI 3-kinase). Interestingly, overexpression of IRS-3-F4 did not promote translocation of GLUT4-HA, but actually inhibited the ability of insulin to stimulate translocation of GLUT4-HA to the cell surface. Our data suggest that IRS-3 and IRS-4 are capable of mediating PI 3-kinase-dependent metabolic actions of insulin in adipose cells, and that IRS proteins play a physiological role in mediating translocation of GLUT4.
Action of insulin receptor substrate-3 (IRS-3) and IRS-4 to stimulate translocation of GLUT4 in rat adipose cells / L., Zhou; H., Chen; P., Xu; L. N., Cong; Sciacchitano, Salvatore; Y., Li; D., Graham; A. R., Jacobs; S. I., Taylor; M. J., Quon. - In: MOLECULAR ENDOCRINOLOGY. - ISSN 0888-8809. - STAMPA. - 13:3(1999), pp. 505-514. [10.1210/me.13.3.505]