Groundwater is the major source to meet domestic, industrial and agricultural needs in the city of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. However, population growth, increasing urbanization, industrialization and tourism, and climatic changes have caused an intensive exploitation of groundwater resources leading the aquifers become more vulnerable to seawater intrusion. The aim of this study is to examine the variations of groundwater chemistry (as resulting from natural and anthropogenic inputs) depending on seasonal changes, in order to evaluate water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes. Physical and chemical data come from the analysis of groundwater samples, collected from 72 wells, used for the evaluation of water quality parameters, during a year of monitoring. Pattern diagrams, geochemical modeling techniques and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) have been used to identify the main factors influencing groundwater composition. Based on the hydrochemistry, the groundwater was classified into three types: (a) Na–Cl, (b) Ca–Cl, (c) mixed Ca–Na–HCO3–Cl (d) mixed Ca–Mg–Cl–SO4. The geochemical modeling results show that groundwater chemistry is mainly influenced by evaporation process, as it is suggested by the increase of Na and Cl ions concentrations. According to irrigation water quality assessment diagrams of USDA, most water samples from dry and rainy seasons, distributed in category C2–S1, C3–S1, C3–S2, C4–S2 highlighting medium to very high salinity hazard and low to medium sodium content class. PCA evidenced the role of seawater intrusion, evaporation process and anthropogenic pollution (i.e. high NO3 levels due to agricultural activities), as the major factors that influenced the water chemistry, and hence the water quality. Based on Pearson correlation matrix, the presence of high correlations (>0.8) among Na, Cl, Mg and SO4, in association with EC, were interpreted as the seawater intrusion effects. In this area groundwater quality is generally low, and often exceeds permissible limits of standard guideline values of WHO and FAO, referred to EC and chloride values. The high salinity and the groundwater level depletion create serious problems for current use of water supplies as well as future exploitation.

Effects of seasonal change and seawater intrusion on water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes, in coastal aquifers of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania / Sappa, Giuseppe; Ergul, Sibel; Ferranti, Flavia; Sweya Ngalya, L.; Luciani, Giulia. - In: JOURNAL OF AFRICAN EARTH SCIENCES. - ISSN 1464-343X. - STAMPA. - 105:1 (maggio)(2015), pp. 64-84. [10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2015.02.007]

Effects of seasonal change and seawater intrusion on water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes, in coastal aquifers of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

SAPPA, Giuseppe;ERGUL, SIBEL;FERRANTI, FLAVIA;LUCIANI, GIULIA
2015

Abstract

Groundwater is the major source to meet domestic, industrial and agricultural needs in the city of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. However, population growth, increasing urbanization, industrialization and tourism, and climatic changes have caused an intensive exploitation of groundwater resources leading the aquifers become more vulnerable to seawater intrusion. The aim of this study is to examine the variations of groundwater chemistry (as resulting from natural and anthropogenic inputs) depending on seasonal changes, in order to evaluate water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes. Physical and chemical data come from the analysis of groundwater samples, collected from 72 wells, used for the evaluation of water quality parameters, during a year of monitoring. Pattern diagrams, geochemical modeling techniques and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) have been used to identify the main factors influencing groundwater composition. Based on the hydrochemistry, the groundwater was classified into three types: (a) Na–Cl, (b) Ca–Cl, (c) mixed Ca–Na–HCO3–Cl (d) mixed Ca–Mg–Cl–SO4. The geochemical modeling results show that groundwater chemistry is mainly influenced by evaporation process, as it is suggested by the increase of Na and Cl ions concentrations. According to irrigation water quality assessment diagrams of USDA, most water samples from dry and rainy seasons, distributed in category C2–S1, C3–S1, C3–S2, C4–S2 highlighting medium to very high salinity hazard and low to medium sodium content class. PCA evidenced the role of seawater intrusion, evaporation process and anthropogenic pollution (i.e. high NO3 levels due to agricultural activities), as the major factors that influenced the water chemistry, and hence the water quality. Based on Pearson correlation matrix, the presence of high correlations (>0.8) among Na, Cl, Mg and SO4, in association with EC, were interpreted as the seawater intrusion effects. In this area groundwater quality is generally low, and often exceeds permissible limits of standard guideline values of WHO and FAO, referred to EC and chloride values. The high salinity and the groundwater level depletion create serious problems for current use of water supplies as well as future exploitation.
2015
Seasonal change; Groundwater; Water quality parameters; PCA; Geochemical modeling
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Effects of seasonal change and seawater intrusion on water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes, in coastal aquifers of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania / Sappa, Giuseppe; Ergul, Sibel; Ferranti, Flavia; Sweya Ngalya, L.; Luciani, Giulia. - In: JOURNAL OF AFRICAN EARTH SCIENCES. - ISSN 1464-343X. - STAMPA. - 105:1 (maggio)(2015), pp. 64-84. [10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2015.02.007]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/643916
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