The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) integrase enzyme has recently emerged as a primary alternative target to block viral replication, and integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are now considered an alternative 'third agent' class of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. Dolutegravir is the first next-generation INSTI showing some novel and intriguing characteristics: it has a favorable pharmacokinetic profile with a prolonged intracellular halflife, rendering feasible a once daily dosing without the need for pharmacokinetic boosting. Secondly, it is largely metabolized via uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase-1A1 with a minor component of cytochrome P450 isoforms, thus allowing a low grade of drug-drug interactions, so that its metabolic profile consents co-administration with the majority of the other ARV drugs without dose adjustments. Lastly, but no less important, virological studies have clearly demonstrated that dolutegravir has a significant activity against HIV-1 isolates showing raltegravir and/or elvitegravir associated resistance mutations. The attributes of once daily administration and the potential to treat INSTI-resistant viruses make dolutegravir an interesting and promising new agent in the treatment of both naïve and experienced HIV-1 subjects. In this review, the main concerns on dolutegravir efficacy are focused through the analysis of the currently available data from clinical studies in naïve and experienced patients, evaluating its possible place within the anti-HIV-1 drug armamentarium. The development of newer once daily, single tablet coformulations improved drug adherence and maximized the success of ARV therapy. Pharmacokinetic studies and dose-ranging trials suggested that dolutegravir is a good candidate for a single tablet regimen in one or more new coformulated pills that will be available in the near future. © The Author(s), 2014.
Dolutegravir: clinical efficacy and role in HIV therapy / Fantauzzi, Alessandra; Mezzaroma, Ivano. - In: THERAPEUTIC ADVANCES IN CHRONIC DISEASE. - ISSN 2040-6223. - ELETTRONICO. - 5:4(2014), pp. 164-177. [10.1177/2040622314530461]