The nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR), a defensive response that allows withdrawal from a noxious stimulus, is a reliable index of spinal nociception in humans. It has been shown that various kinds of stimuli (emotional, visual, auditory) can modulate the transmission and perception of pain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, by means of the NWR, the modulatory effect on the spinal circuitry of olfactory stimuli with different emotional valence. The magnitude of the NWR elicited by electrical stimulation of the sural nerve was measured while 18 subjects (9 women, 9 men) smelled pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral odors. The NWR was conditioned by odor probe with interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 500 ms and 1,500 ms. The magnitude of NWR was significantly greater after the unpleasant odor probe (P < .001) and reduced following the pleasant odor probe (P < .001) at both ISIs. A significant effect of olfactory stimuli on subjective pain ratings were found at both ISIs for pleasant vs unpleasant odors (P < .000), and for both pleasant and unpleasant odors vs neutral and basal conditions (P < .000). No statistical differences in subjective pain ratings at different ISIs were found. Consistent with the notion that NWR magnitude and pain perception can be modulated by stimuli with different emotional valence, these results show that olfactory stimuli, too, can modulate spinal nociception in humans. (C) 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.

Modulation of the human nociceptive flexion reflex by pleasant and unpleasant odors / Michelangelo, Bartolo; Serrao, Mariano; Zurab, Gamgebeli; Marina, Alpaidze; Armando, Perrotta; Luca, Padua; Pierelli, Francesco; Nappi, Giuseppe; Giorgio, Sandrini. - In: PAIN. - ISSN 0304-3959. - STAMPA. - 154:10(2013), pp. 2054-2059. [10.1016/j.pain.2013.06.032]

Modulation of the human nociceptive flexion reflex by pleasant and unpleasant odors

SERRAO, Mariano;PIERELLI, Francesco;NAPPI, Giuseppe;
2013

Abstract

The nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR), a defensive response that allows withdrawal from a noxious stimulus, is a reliable index of spinal nociception in humans. It has been shown that various kinds of stimuli (emotional, visual, auditory) can modulate the transmission and perception of pain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, by means of the NWR, the modulatory effect on the spinal circuitry of olfactory stimuli with different emotional valence. The magnitude of the NWR elicited by electrical stimulation of the sural nerve was measured while 18 subjects (9 women, 9 men) smelled pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral odors. The NWR was conditioned by odor probe with interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 500 ms and 1,500 ms. The magnitude of NWR was significantly greater after the unpleasant odor probe (P < .001) and reduced following the pleasant odor probe (P < .001) at both ISIs. A significant effect of olfactory stimuli on subjective pain ratings were found at both ISIs for pleasant vs unpleasant odors (P < .000), and for both pleasant and unpleasant odors vs neutral and basal conditions (P < .000). No statistical differences in subjective pain ratings at different ISIs were found. Consistent with the notion that NWR magnitude and pain perception can be modulated by stimuli with different emotional valence, these results show that olfactory stimuli, too, can modulate spinal nociception in humans. (C) 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.
2013
nociceptive withdrawal reflex; nociceptive withdrawal reflex nociception olfactory odor olfactory stimulation; nociception; odor olfactory stimulation; olfactory
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01a Articolo in rivista
Modulation of the human nociceptive flexion reflex by pleasant and unpleasant odors / Michelangelo, Bartolo; Serrao, Mariano; Zurab, Gamgebeli; Marina, Alpaidze; Armando, Perrotta; Luca, Padua; Pierelli, Francesco; Nappi, Giuseppe; Giorgio, Sandrini. - In: PAIN. - ISSN 0304-3959. - STAMPA. - 154:10(2013), pp. 2054-2059. [10.1016/j.pain.2013.06.032]
File allegati a questo prodotto
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/559057
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 7
  • Scopus 31
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 24
social impact