The chaotic hypothesis has several implications which have generated interest in the literature because of their generality and because a few exact predictions are among them. However its application to Physics problems requires attention and can lead to apparent inconsistencies. In particular there are several cases that have been considered in the literature in which singularities are built in the models: for instance when among the forces there are Lennard-Jones potentials (which are infinite in the origin) and the constraints imposed on the system do not forbid arbitrarily close approach to the singularity even though the average kinetic energy is bounded. The situation is well understood in certain special cases in which the system is subject to Gaussian noise; here the treatment of rather general singular systems is considered and the predictions of the chaotic hypothesis for such situations are derived. The main conclusion is that the chaotic hypothesis is perfectly adequate to describe the singular physical systems we consider, i.e deterministic systems with thermostat forces acting according to Gauss' principle for the constraint of constant total kinetic energy ("isokinetic Gaussian thermostats"), close and far from equilibrium. Near equilibrium it even predicts a fluctuation relation which, in deterministic cases with more general thermostat forces (i.e not necessarily of Gaussian isokinetic nature), extends recent relations obtained in situations in which the thermostatting forces satisfy Gauss' principle. This relation agrees, where expected, with the fluctuation theorem for perfectly chaotic systems. The results are compared with some recent works in the literature.
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|Titolo:||Chaotic hypothesis, fluctuation theorem and singularities|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2006|
|Appartiene alla tipologia:||01a Articolo in rivista|