Monkeys can learn the symbolic meaning of tokens, and exchange them to get a reward. Monkeys can also learn the symbolic value of a token by observing conspecifics but it is not clear if they can learn passively by observing other actors, e.g., humans. To answer this question, we tested two monkeys in a token exchange paradigm in three experiments. Monkeys learned token values through observation of human models exchanging them. We used, after a phase of object familiarization, different sets of tokens. One token of each set was rewarded with a bit of apple. Other tokens had zero value (neutral tokens). Each token was presented only in one set. During the observation phase, monkeys watched the human model exchange tokens and watched them consume rewards (vicarious rewards). In the test phase, the monkeys were asked to exchange one of the tokens for food reward. Sets of three tokens were used in the first experiment and sets of two tokens were used in the second and third experiments. The valuable token was presented with different probabilities in the observation phase during the first and second experiments in which the monkeys exchanged the valuable token more frequently than any of the neutral tokens. The third experiments examined the effect of unequal probabilities. Our results support the view that monkeys can learn from non-conspecific actors through vicarious reward, even a symbolic task like the token-exchange task.

Macaque Monkeys Can Learn Token Values from Human Models through Vicarious Reward / Bevacqua, Sara; Cerasti, Erika; Falcone, Rossella; Milena, Cervelloni; Brunamonti, Emiliano; Ferraina, Stefano; Genovesio, Aldo; Georges, Chapouthier. - In: PLOS ONE. - ISSN 1932-6203. - STAMPA. - 8:3(2013), p. e59961. [10.1371/journal.pone.0059961]

Macaque Monkeys Can Learn Token Values from Human Models through Vicarious Reward

BEVACQUA, SARA;CERASTI, ERIKA;FALCONE, ROSSELLA;BRUNAMONTI, EMILIANO;FERRAINA, Stefano;GENOVESIO, Aldo;
2013

Abstract

Monkeys can learn the symbolic meaning of tokens, and exchange them to get a reward. Monkeys can also learn the symbolic value of a token by observing conspecifics but it is not clear if they can learn passively by observing other actors, e.g., humans. To answer this question, we tested two monkeys in a token exchange paradigm in three experiments. Monkeys learned token values through observation of human models exchanging them. We used, after a phase of object familiarization, different sets of tokens. One token of each set was rewarded with a bit of apple. Other tokens had zero value (neutral tokens). Each token was presented only in one set. During the observation phase, monkeys watched the human model exchange tokens and watched them consume rewards (vicarious rewards). In the test phase, the monkeys were asked to exchange one of the tokens for food reward. Sets of three tokens were used in the first experiment and sets of two tokens were used in the second and third experiments. The valuable token was presented with different probabilities in the observation phase during the first and second experiments in which the monkeys exchanged the valuable token more frequently than any of the neutral tokens. The third experiments examined the effect of unequal probabilities. Our results support the view that monkeys can learn from non-conspecific actors through vicarious reward, even a symbolic task like the token-exchange task.
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01a Articolo in rivista
Macaque Monkeys Can Learn Token Values from Human Models through Vicarious Reward / Bevacqua, Sara; Cerasti, Erika; Falcone, Rossella; Milena, Cervelloni; Brunamonti, Emiliano; Ferraina, Stefano; Genovesio, Aldo; Georges, Chapouthier. - In: PLOS ONE. - ISSN 1932-6203. - STAMPA. - 8:3(2013), p. e59961. [10.1371/journal.pone.0059961]
File allegati a questo prodotto
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/516074
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 4
  • Scopus 10
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 10
social impact