Objectives: This is the first research study to compare among female, non-smoker workers: (a) the exposure to benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTXs) in urban air during work in the street (traffic policewomen, TP) vs. work in vehicles (police drivers, PD); (b) the exposure to BTXs in urban environments (in street and in car) vs. rural environments (roadwomen, RW); (c) the values of blood benzene, urinary trans, trans muconic acid (t,t-MA) and urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA) in urban areas (in street and in car) vs. rural areas. Methods: Passive personal samplings and data acquired using fixed monitoring stations located in different areas of the city were used to measure environmental and occupational exposure to BTXs during the work shift in 48 TP, 21 PD and 22 RW. In the same study subjects, blood benzene, t,t-MA and S-PMA were measured at the end of each work shift. Results: Personal exposure of urban workers to benzene seemed to be higher than the exposure measured by the fixed monitoring stations. Personal exposure to benzene and toluene was (a) similar among TP and PD and (b) higher among urban workers compared to rural workers. Personal exposure to xylenes was (a) higher in TP than in PD and (b) higher among urban workers compared to rural workers. Blood benzene, t,t-MA and S-PMA levels were similar among TP and PD, although the blood benzene level was significantly higher in urban workers compared to rural workers. In urban workers, airborne benzene and blood benzene levels were significantly correlated. Conclusions: Benzene is a human carcinogen, and BTXs are potential reproductive toxins at low dose exposures. Biological and environmental monitoring to assess exposure to BTXs represents a preliminary and necessary tool for the implementation of preventive measures for female subjects working in outdoor environments. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Assessment of occupational exposure to benzene, toluene and xylenes in urban and rural female workers / Ciarrocca, Manuela; Tomei, Gianfranco; Fiaschetti, Maria; Tiziana, Caciari; Cetica, Carlotta; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Capozzella, Assuntina; Schifano, MARIA PIA; Jean Claude, Andre'; Tomei, Francesco; Sancini, Angela. - In: CHEMOSPHERE. - ISSN 0045-6535. - 87:7(2012), pp. 813-819. [10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.01.008]

Assessment of occupational exposure to benzene, toluene and xylenes in urban and rural female workers

CIARROCCA, Manuela;TOMEI, GIANFRANCO;FIASCHETTI, MARIA;CETICA, CARLOTTA;ANDREOZZI, giorgia;CAPOZZELLA, ASSUNTINA;SCHIFANO, MARIA PIA;TOMEI, Francesco;SANCINI, angela
2012

Abstract

Objectives: This is the first research study to compare among female, non-smoker workers: (a) the exposure to benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTXs) in urban air during work in the street (traffic policewomen, TP) vs. work in vehicles (police drivers, PD); (b) the exposure to BTXs in urban environments (in street and in car) vs. rural environments (roadwomen, RW); (c) the values of blood benzene, urinary trans, trans muconic acid (t,t-MA) and urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA) in urban areas (in street and in car) vs. rural areas. Methods: Passive personal samplings and data acquired using fixed monitoring stations located in different areas of the city were used to measure environmental and occupational exposure to BTXs during the work shift in 48 TP, 21 PD and 22 RW. In the same study subjects, blood benzene, t,t-MA and S-PMA were measured at the end of each work shift. Results: Personal exposure of urban workers to benzene seemed to be higher than the exposure measured by the fixed monitoring stations. Personal exposure to benzene and toluene was (a) similar among TP and PD and (b) higher among urban workers compared to rural workers. Personal exposure to xylenes was (a) higher in TP than in PD and (b) higher among urban workers compared to rural workers. Blood benzene, t,t-MA and S-PMA levels were similar among TP and PD, although the blood benzene level was significantly higher in urban workers compared to rural workers. In urban workers, airborne benzene and blood benzene levels were significantly correlated. Conclusions: Benzene is a human carcinogen, and BTXs are potential reproductive toxins at low dose exposures. Biological and environmental monitoring to assess exposure to BTXs represents a preliminary and necessary tool for the implementation of preventive measures for female subjects working in outdoor environments. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
benzene; female workers; leukaemia; reproductive health; urban pollutants; vocs
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01a Articolo in rivista
Assessment of occupational exposure to benzene, toluene and xylenes in urban and rural female workers / Ciarrocca, Manuela; Tomei, Gianfranco; Fiaschetti, Maria; Tiziana, Caciari; Cetica, Carlotta; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Capozzella, Assuntina; Schifano, MARIA PIA; Jean Claude, Andre'; Tomei, Francesco; Sancini, Angela. - In: CHEMOSPHERE. - ISSN 0045-6535. - 87:7(2012), pp. 813-819. [10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.01.008]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/449742
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