One hundred nineteen patients operated upon for acute ischemia of the lower limbs have been retrospectively reviewed, in order to evaluate the influence of the condition on outcome, and the patterns of treatment. Fifty six per cent of the patients were males and 42% females, 68.4% had an history of aorto-iliac obstructive disease; 51.2% of the ischemias were due to arterial thrombosis and 48.8% to embolism, in 12.5% of the cases etiology was unknown. Thrombosis were more frequent in younger patients' population (mean age 59.8 years) compared to embolism (mean age 69 years), even if the mean age of patients bearing an ischemia of embolic type has risen, in the last 10 years: 62.1% were due to atrial fibrillation and 50% occurred on pathologic arteries, patients with arterial obstructive disease presented a higher incidence of arrest of embolic material at the common femoral artery bifurcation. Women's mean age was significantly higher then that of men (70.9 vs. 59 yrs.). Embolism was more frequent in women than in men (64 vs 42.2), whereas thrombosis was more frequent in men than women (57.8 vs 36%). There were more deaths in women than men (30.8 vs 20.8%), but more amputations in men than women (37.3 vs 17.3%). Embolism of arterial origin include 15.2% of all acute ischemias and 31% of all embolisms, and their site of origin is often unknown, particularly when it is located in the thoracic aorta, which mandate a complete arteriography and eventually a CT-Scan of the thorax and the abdomen. A lower limb phlebitis, associated with an acute ischemia mandates the search of a patent foramen ovale, and an heparin induced thrombocytopenia. Surgical treatment is directed towards obstruction removal (embolectomy, by-pass) and towards the treatment of the causative agent (aortic endarterectomy, caval filter, anticoagulants). Post-operative thrombolysis may be beneficial in case of distal residual thrombus after embolectomy. An higher mortality rate has been observed in acute ischemias due to embolism rather than thrombosis (31 vs 19.6%) and more major amputations in thrombosis than in embolism (37.7 vs 17.2%). Overall mortality rate has been of 25%, with an amputation rate of 28%. Present results have been compared with those of the literature, both agree on some changes over the last 20 years, concerning the incidence of different mechanisms of acute ischemias and their prognosis.
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|Titolo:||Ischemia acuta degli arti inferiori|
|Data di pubblicazione:||1996|
|Appartiene alla tipologia:||01a Articolo in rivista|