Hypertension can lead to subarachnoid hemorrhage and eventually to cerebral vasospasm. It has been suggested that the latter could be the result of oxidative stress and an inflammatory response evoked by subarachnoid hemorrhage. Because an unavoidable consequence of hemorrhage is lysis of red blood cells, we first tested the hypothesis on carotid arteries that the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α contributes to vascular oxidative stress evoked by hemolysis. We observed that hemolysis induces a significant increase in tumor necrosis factor-α both in blood and in vascular tissues, where it provokes Rac-1/NADPH oxidase–mediated oxidative stress and vasoconstriction. Furthermore, we extended our observations to cerebral vessels, demonstrating that tumor necrosis factor-α triggered this mechanism on the basilar artery. Finally, in an in vivo model of subarachnoid hemorrhage obtained by the administration of hemolyzed blood in the cisterna magna, we demonstrated, by high-resolution ultrasound analysis, that tumor necrosis factor-α inhibition prevented and resolved acute cerebral vasoconstriction. Moreover, tumor necrosis factor-α inhibition rescued the hemolysis-induced brain injury, evaluated with the method of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride and by the histological analysis of pyknotic nuclei. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that tumor necrosis factor-α plays a crucial role in the onset of hemolysis-induced vascular injury and can be used as a novel target of the therapeutic strategy against cerebral vasospasm.
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|Titolo:||Tumor necrosis factor-alpha mediates hemolysis-induced vasoconstriction and the cerebral vasospasm evoked by subarachnoid hemorrhage.|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2009|
|Appartiene alla tipologia:||01a Articolo in rivista|