Every project for the development of cultural heritage is founded on at least two premises: an understanding of the individual item and the context in which it is found, and a correct communication of the information acquired, promoting the widest possible fruition of this knowledge by the community. In recent years the use of new technologies for documentation of cultural heritage has become more and more widespread, greatly modifying both acquisition and diffusion of information. However, there is now a need for greater control over cultural content and its correct communication, to ensure not only technical precision, but also integrity of methods and general goals. The following article presents a number of research projects that deal with architectural and urban-historical themes, directed towards a more widespread and active sharing of knowledge and information and favoured by new technologies and the internet, but always with due attention to quality of cultural content. A fundamental aspect is the use of 3D models, since communication of built space is more effective if it is based on criteria of perception. Such systems of visualisation, based on the user’s interaction with the three-dimensional space of the object, have shown themselves to be a valid aid for less expert users. These models have been used above all as focal points to organise various forms of information in different ways: the 3D digital space enables the user more easily to correlate a particular datum, extract, or search item into its context. With further manipulation, these models have been integrated differentially with the real or virtual space, creating cultural paths of strong impact as well as high cultural content. Moreover, the various research projects have considered especially technologies that require no special instrumentation, that are easy to use, inexpensive or preferably open source, but, in any case, reliable as regards the quality of the data processed (metrical, geometrical, and surface). The greatest progress in the 3D reconstruction of architectural or urban properties has been made in the field of digital photogrammetry, especially in the procedures of photomodelling. These procedures make it possible to effectively create measurable 3D models based on “ordinary” photographs, even if taken at different moments in the history of the object; thus, scalable and flexible, they are applications adaptable to diverse needs. The use of such procedures allows, above all, to obtain excellent results in the field of non-monumental architecture, so commonly found in Italian historical contexts, thanks both to the precision of the geometrical and measurement data, and to the quality of the photometric information. Here it suffices to briefly mention some further developments aimed at creating and visualising interactive 3D environments on the internet, available to all types of users. After the images have been sent by means of a special client downloaded and installed locally, the remote system automatically performs the operation of calibration: the images are rapidly connected in a kind of 3D web that allows to visualise and interactively explore both the photometric reconstruction and the 3D point cloud. Another aspect of the experiences described has been the contextualisation of the 3D component, so that it becomes an interface for accessing and sharing cultural content. Various information systems have been designed around these 3D models by integrating, linking, and superimposing upon them different environments and spaces in the directions of 3DGIS, WebGIS, virtual and augmented reality. Among the research projects that have been carried out, mention should be made of “An approach towards the construction of a Digital Atlas for the documentation of cloisters and courtyards in Ascoli Piceno, 2006-2008”, of the research project “Maps, technological and spatial models for understanding, promotion and sharing urban heritage, 2007-09” and the current research project, “Informative integrated Models to know, improve and share urban and environmental heritage”.

Practical Application of New Survey Technologies in Architectural and Urban Heritage Communication Projects

IPPOLITI, ELENA;A. Meschini
In corso di stampa

Abstract

Every project for the development of cultural heritage is founded on at least two premises: an understanding of the individual item and the context in which it is found, and a correct communication of the information acquired, promoting the widest possible fruition of this knowledge by the community. In recent years the use of new technologies for documentation of cultural heritage has become more and more widespread, greatly modifying both acquisition and diffusion of information. However, there is now a need for greater control over cultural content and its correct communication, to ensure not only technical precision, but also integrity of methods and general goals. The following article presents a number of research projects that deal with architectural and urban-historical themes, directed towards a more widespread and active sharing of knowledge and information and favoured by new technologies and the internet, but always with due attention to quality of cultural content. A fundamental aspect is the use of 3D models, since communication of built space is more effective if it is based on criteria of perception. Such systems of visualisation, based on the user’s interaction with the three-dimensional space of the object, have shown themselves to be a valid aid for less expert users. These models have been used above all as focal points to organise various forms of information in different ways: the 3D digital space enables the user more easily to correlate a particular datum, extract, or search item into its context. With further manipulation, these models have been integrated differentially with the real or virtual space, creating cultural paths of strong impact as well as high cultural content. Moreover, the various research projects have considered especially technologies that require no special instrumentation, that are easy to use, inexpensive or preferably open source, but, in any case, reliable as regards the quality of the data processed (metrical, geometrical, and surface). The greatest progress in the 3D reconstruction of architectural or urban properties has been made in the field of digital photogrammetry, especially in the procedures of photomodelling. These procedures make it possible to effectively create measurable 3D models based on “ordinary” photographs, even if taken at different moments in the history of the object; thus, scalable and flexible, they are applications adaptable to diverse needs. The use of such procedures allows, above all, to obtain excellent results in the field of non-monumental architecture, so commonly found in Italian historical contexts, thanks both to the precision of the geometrical and measurement data, and to the quality of the photometric information. Here it suffices to briefly mention some further developments aimed at creating and visualising interactive 3D environments on the internet, available to all types of users. After the images have been sent by means of a special client downloaded and installed locally, the remote system automatically performs the operation of calibration: the images are rapidly connected in a kind of 3D web that allows to visualise and interactively explore both the photometric reconstruction and the 3D point cloud. Another aspect of the experiences described has been the contextualisation of the 3D component, so that it becomes an interface for accessing and sharing cultural content. Various information systems have been designed around these 3D models by integrating, linking, and superimposing upon them different environments and spaces in the directions of 3DGIS, WebGIS, virtual and augmented reality. Among the research projects that have been carried out, mention should be made of “An approach towards the construction of a Digital Atlas for the documentation of cloisters and courtyards in Ascoli Piceno, 2006-2008”, of the research project “Maps, technological and spatial models for understanding, promotion and sharing urban heritage, 2007-09” and the current research project, “Informative integrated Models to know, improve and share urban and environmental heritage”.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11573/416579
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