Climate change (CC) will exacerbate environmental, social and economical problems in low- and middle-income nations, it poses threat to agriculture and food security, water resources, natural ecosystems, forestry, biodiversity, and human health. Urbanization process is a significant contributor to global environmental change and at the same time CC poses complex and multilayered development challenges to cities, particularly in least developed countries (LDCs). The rapid urban growth and the impact of urbanization on ecosystem sustainability make urgent need to understand the reciprocal interactions between urbanization and global environmental change processes. Together with the challenges of rapid urban growth, CC impacts will undermine country efforts to achieve the sustainable development. UN Habitat has highlighted that human dimension of CC is still neglected in CC debate and that «since climate change impacts will undermine country efforts to achieve the goals of sustainable development, adaptation is needed. This is crucial particularly because climate is already changing and most countries do not have the adaptive capacity to respond or be prepared to face the climate change impact on cities, settlements and on livelihoods.» (UN Habitat, 2008). Adaptation plans and strategies to reduce CC risks are not only necessary but urgent to improve capacity to cope with CC in the cities of low- and middle-income nations. The research assumes that the peri-urban interface is the part of these cities most vulnerable to CC, due to its numerous environmental, social and economic concerns, which make it a priority area for improvements in adaptation to climate change and variability. It is assumed that the peri-urban areas are, for various reasons (Satterthwaite, 2007; Tacoli, 1998; …..) crucial to the improvement of adaptive capacity in regions severely affected by CC, which (as stated by UNFCCC) must provide for the implementation of national adaptation programs (NAPA) through local plans. For these reasons the activities undertaken in peri-urban areas must be included, as fundamental resource, in the adaptation action plans development process. It is hypothesized that the adaptive capacity in peri-urban areas depends on four main factors: 1. type and magnitude of local environmental impacts of CC (what environmental cycles are or will be modified? How and to which extent? 2. rural-urban dynamics, land-use patterns and urban fabric (are or will they be affected by the above environmental impacts? how and to which extent do they contribute to the resilience of the urban and regional systems they belong to? How does climate change interact with urbanization processes in accelerating or delaying the expected dynamics) 3. local capacity to cope with CC effects (is there any knowledge and/or experience in adaptation to climate variability? On which key factors and actors does local coping capacity lie?) 4. institutional capacity on environmental management and urban development planning (is there a planning ruling system for the peri-urban area? At which level of government? How effective is it and on which issues? Does the local government look at the adaptation funding as an opportunity? To do what? The contribution proposed seeks to further understanding of adaptive capacity within the context of complex social and environmental dynamics and development, such as peri-urban interface. It use an empirical case studies - from East Africa, Dar es Salasam - to explore adaptive capacity factors above mentioned. Through a pilot study, at household level, a methodology to identify and assess the key factors in the definition of action for increasing adaptive capacity in peri-urban areas is proposed.
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|Titolo:||Climate change adaptation action plans in peri-urban areas of LDCs: the case of Dar es Salaam|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2010|
|Appartiene alla tipologia:||04d Abstract in atti di convegno|