To establish the overall frequency distribution and combination of acid-base and electrolyte disturbances as they occur in a general population requiring hospital care, we studied arterial blood gases and plasma electrolytes (sodium, potassium and chloride) in 110 consecutive patients (age = 68 +/- 8 SE; 64 M, 46 F) at the time of admission to a general medical ward. Disturbances were defined on the basis of the standard pH/pCO2 plot and the normal (mean +/- 2 SD) electrolyte range for our laboratory. Sixty-two patients (56%) showed a disturbance in acid base equilibrium: acidosis: respiratory 16, metabolic 6; alkalosis: respiratory 26, metabolic 10; in 4/62 the acid base disturbance was mixed. In 47 of the 62 patients, the acid base imbalance were associated with electrolyte derangements (low PNa+, 12; high PNa+, 1; low PK+, 10; high pK+, 7; increased anion gap, 17). Electrolyte disturbances with a normal acid base status were detected in only 2 patients. Of significance, in 7 of the 58 individuals considered to have a "pure" acid base disturbance on the basis of the pH/pCO2 plot (5 respiratory alkalosis; 1 respiratory acidosis; 1 metabolic alkalosis), a widened anion gap revealed that the acid-base change was mixed, i.e. there was a concomitant component of metabolic acidosis. Thus, the total number of mixed acid base equilibrium disorders were eleven. This study emphasizes the frequent incidence of acid base and electrolyte disorders, very often in combination, among unselected adult patients admitted to a general medical ward. In addition it reinforces that a high prevalence of hidden cases of mixed acid base disturbances can be recognized by concomitant analysis of acid base and electrolyte parameters, including anion gap calculation.
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|Titolo:||Incidence of acid-base and electrolyte disturbances in a general hospital: a study of 110 consecutive admissions.|
|Data di pubblicazione:||1990|
|Appartiene alla tipologia:||01a Articolo in rivista|