Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a recently identified bioactive peptide that activates an orphan G-protein coupled receptor, called the NPS receptor (NPSR). In rats, NPS and NPSR constitute a novel neuropeptide system expressed both in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues, controlling visceromotor, neuroendocrine, nociceptive and behavioural responses. To improve the knowledge of the role of the NPS-NPSR system in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, we investigated: 1- the supraspinal effect of NPS on motor functions of the upper (gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit) and lower (distal colonic transit and faecal output) Cl tract under basal conditions, 2- during pathological states (restraint stress and corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)-induced defecation) in the rat, and 3- the receptor type involved in treatment with NPS using NPS, tachykinin NK3 and opioid receptor antagonists (([D-Cys(tBu)(5)]NPS), SR142801 and naloxone, respectively). Intracerebroventricular injection of NPS failed to modify basal gastric emptying, gastrointestinal transit and distal colon propulsion, but significantly and dose-dependently reduced faecal pellet excretion and weight stimulated by restraint stress and CRF. The inhibitory effect of NPS on stress-induced defecation was unmodified by pre-treatment with either the tachykinin or opioid receptor antagonists, but was counteracted by a NPSR antagonist. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, that the supraspinal NPS system, which does not participate in the physiological control of Cl motility, plays an inhibitory role on defecation stimulated by restraint stress and CRF. The combination of the ability of NPS to inhibit faecal output together with its known anxiolytic effect may be promising, especially in pathological conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, where stress and the hyperactivity of the CRF system contribute to the co-morbidity of anxiety with colonic motor symptoms such as diarrhoea. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
|Titolo:||Neuropeptide S inhibits stress-stimulated faecal output in the rat|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2011|
|Appartiene alla tipologia:||01a Articolo in rivista|