Introduction: High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a key mediator of inflammation that is actively secreted by macrophages and/or passively released from damaged cells. The proinflammatory role of HMGB1 has been demonstrated in both animal models and humans, since the severity of inflammatory response is strictly related to serum HMGB1 levels in patients suffering from traumatic insult, including operative trauma. This study was undertaken to investigate HMGB1 production kinetics in patients undergoing major elective surgery and to address how circulating mononuclear cells are implicated in this setting. Moreover, we explored the possible relationship between HMGB1 and the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). Methods: Forty-seven subjects, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II, scheduled for major abdominal procedures, were enrolled. After intravenous medication with midazolam (0.025 mg/Kg), all patients received a standard general anesthesia protocol, by thiopentone sodium (5 mg/Kg) and fentanyl (1.4 mu g/Kg), plus injected Vecuronium (0.08 mg/Kg). Venous peripheral blood was drawn from patients at three different times, t(0): before surgery, t(1): immediately after surgical procedure; t(2): at 24 hours following intervention. Monocytes were purified by incubation with anti-CD14-coated microbeads, followed by sorting with a magnetic device. Cellular localization of HMGB1 was investigated by flow cytometry assay; HMGB1 release in the serum by Western blot. Serum samples were tested for IL-6 levels by ELISA. A one-way repeated-measures analysis ANOVA was performed to assess differences in HMGB1 concentration over time, in monocytes and serum. Results: We show that: a) cellular expression of HMGB1 in monocytes at t(1) was significantly higher as compared to t(0); b) at t(2), a significant increase of HMGB1 levels was found in the sera of patients. Such an increase was concomitant to a significant down-regulation of cellular HMGB1, suggesting that the release of HMGB1 might partially derive from mononuclear cells; c) treatment of monocytes with HMGB1 induced in vitro the release of IL-6; d) at t(2), high amounts of circulating IL-6 were detected as compared to t(0). Conclusions: This study demonstrates for the first time that surgical/anesthesia trauma is able to induce an early intracellular upregulation of HMGB1 in monocytes of surgical patients, suggesting that HMGB1 derives, at least partially, from monocytes.
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|Titolo:||Increased HMGB1 expression and release by mononuclear cells following surgical/anesthesia trauma|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2010|
|Appartiene alla tipologia:||01a Articolo in rivista|