Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a bioactive peptide transiently expressed in preovulatory follicles. PACAP acts by interacting with three types of PACAP receptors. PACAP type I receptor (PAC(1)-R), which binds specifically to both PACAPs and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), although with lower affinity, and two VIP receptors, VPAC(1)-R and VPAC(2)-R, which bind to PACAP and VIP with equal affinity. In the present study, we showed the expression of all three receptors in whole ovaries obtained from juvenile and gonadotropin-treated immature rats. A more detailed analysis on cells from preovulatory follicles showed that PAC1-R and VPAC2-R were expressed in granulosa cells, whereas only VIP receptors were expressed in theca/interstitial (TI) cells and fully grown oocytes presented only PAC(1)-R. The distribution of the VIP receptors was confirmed by immunofluorescence. HCG treatment induced stimulation of PAC(1)-R in granulosa cells and VPAC2-R in TI cells. The presence of functional PACAP/VIP receptors was also supported by metabolic studies. We further evaluated the presence of PACAP and VIP receptors by testing the effect of these peptides on apoptosis in granulosa cells cultured, isolated or in whole follicles. Treatment of follicles with PACAP and VIP dose-dependently inhibited apoptosis, while only PACAP significantly inhibited isolated granulosa cells. These results demonstrate a different expression of PACAP/VIP receptors in the various follicle compartments and suggest a possible role for PACAP and VIP on granulosa and TI cells, both during follicle development and ovulation.
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|Titolo:||Characterization and expression of different pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide/vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptors in rat ovarian follicles|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2006|
|Appartiene alla tipologia:||01a Articolo in rivista|