The results of the present investigation show the susceptibility of tyrosine to undergo visible lightinduced photomodification to 3-nitrotyrosine in the presence of nitrite and riboflavin, as sensitizer. By changing H 2O by D 2O, it could be established that singlet oxygen has a minor role in the reaction. The finding that nitration of tyrosine still occurred to a large extent under anaerobic conditions indicates that the process proceeds mainly through a type I mechanism, which involves the direct interaction of the excited state of riboflavin with tyrosine and nitrite to give tyrosyl radical and nitrogen dioxide radical, respectively. The tyrosyl radicals can either dimerize to yield 3,3'-dityrosine or combine with nitrogen dioxide radical to form 3-nitrotyrosine. The formation of 3-nitrotyrosine was found to increase with the concentration of nitrite added and was accompanied by a decrease in the recovery of 3,3'-dityrosine, suggesting that tyrosine nitration competes with dimerization reaction. The riboflavin photosensitizing reaction in the presence of nitrite was also able to induce nitration of tyrosine residues in proteins as revealed by the spectral changes at 430 nm, a characteristic absorbance of 3-nitrotyrosine, and by immunoreactivity using 3-nitrotyrosine antibodies. Since riboflavin and nitrite are both present endogenously in living organism, it is suggested that this pathway of tyrosine nitration may potentially occur in tissues and organs exposed to sunlight such as skin and eye. © Springer-Verlag 2011.
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|Titolo:||Formation of 3-nitrotyrosine by riboflavin photosensitized oxidation of tyrosine in the presence of nitrite|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2012|
|Appartiene alla tipologia:||01a Articolo in rivista|