PURPOSE: EGR-1 is an immediate early gene with diverse functions that include the suppression of growth. EGR-1 is down-regulated many cancer cell types, suggesting a tumor suppressor role, and may critically involve the p53 pathway. The aim of this work was to measure the expression of EGR-1 and the p16/INK4a/ARF-Mdm2-p53 pathway status in fresh human gliomas. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Thirty-one human gliomas with different grades of malignancy were investigated for Egr-1 mRNA and the protein expression, frequency, and spectrum of p53 gene mutations, mdm2 gene amplification, and p16/INK4a/ARF allele loss. RESULTS: The amplification of Mdm2 and the deletion of the p16/INK4a gene was found in 3 and 5 cases, respectively, whereas mutations of p53, including two novel mutations, were observed in 10 other cases. The three types of changes occurred strictly mutually exclusively, emphasizing that these genes operate in a common pathway critical to glioma progression. EGR-1 mRNA was significantly down-regulated in astrocytomas (14.7 +/- 5.1%) and in glioblastomas (33.6 +/- 10.0%) versus normal brain. Overall, EGR-1 mRNA was strongly suppressed (average, 15.2 +/- 13.9%) in 27 of 31 cases (87%), independent of changes in p16/INK4a/ARF and Mdm2; whereas 4 of 31 cases with residual EGR-1 expression as well as the highest EGR-1 variance segregated with p53 mutations. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the suppression of EGR-1 protein. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that EGR-1 is commonly suppressed in gliomas independent of p16/INK4a/ARF and Mdm2 and that suppression is less crucial in tumors bearing p53 mutations, and these results implicate an EGR-1 growth regulatory mechanism as a target of inactivation during tumor progression.
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|Titolo:||The early growth response gene EGR-1 behaves as a suppressor gene that is down-regulated independent of ARF/Mdm2 but not p53 alterations in fresh human gliomas|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2001|
|Appartiene alla tipologia:||01a Articolo in rivista|