Cigarette smoking is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and thrombotic events. In athero-thrombotic diseases, the extracellular adenine nucleotides play an important role by triggering a range of effects such as the recruitment and activation of platelets, endothelial cell activation and vasoconstriction. NTPDase, a plasma membrane-bound enzyme, is the most relevant enzyme involved in the hydrolysis of extracellular tri- and di-phosphate nucleotides to adenosine monophosphate, which is further degraded by 5′ectonucleotidase to the anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory mediator adenosine. Thus, the preserved activity of these enzymes, regulating the extracellular concentrations of nucleotides, is critical in thromboregulatory functions. In the present in vitro study, performed on human platelets suspended in undiluted or diluted aqueous cigarette smoke extract (aCSE), we demonstrated that undiluted and 1 : 2 diluted aCSE is able to significantly reduce ADP hydrolysis (-24% and 12%, respectively) by intact human platelets. ATP degradation was also reduced (-31%) by undiluted aCSE. Conversely, aCSE did not alter platelet AMP hydrolysis. Results obtained by using N-acetylcysteine, a thiol-containing antioxidant, suggest that stable oxidants present in aCSE are responsible for the platelet NTPDase inhibition induced by aCSE. The decreased adenine nucleotide degradation could play a significant role in the extensive platelet activation and vascular inflammation observed in chronic smokers. © 2008 Informa UK Ltd.
Cigarette smoke inhibits adenine nucleotide hydrolysis by human platelets / Togna, Anna Rita; Latina, Valentina; Orlando, Rosamaria; Togna, Giuseppina Ines. - In: PLATELETS. - ISSN 0953-7104. - STAMPA. - 19:7(2008), pp. 537-542. [10.1080/09537100802272626]