Background: Recently, it was realized that the functional connectivity networks estimated from actual brain-imaging technologies (MEG, fMRI and EEG) can be analyzed by means of the graph theory, that is a mathematical representation of a network, which is essentially reduced to nodes and connections between them.Methods: We used high-resolution EEG technology to enhance the poor spatial information of the EEG activity on the scalp and it gives a measure of the electrical activity on the cortical surface. Afterwards, we used the Directed Transfer Function (DTF) that is a multivariate spectral measure for the estimation of the directional influences between any given pair of channels in a multivariate dataset. Finally, a graph theoretical approach was used to model the brain networks as graphs. These methods were used to analyze the structure of cortical connectivity during the attempt to move a paralyzed limb in a group (N=5) of spinal cord injured patients and during the movement execution in a group (N=5) of healthy subjects.Results: Analysis performed on the cortical networks estimated from the group of normal and SCI patients revealed that both groups present few nodes with a high out-degree value (i.e. outgoing links). This property is valid in the networks estimated for all the frequency bands investigated. In particular, cingulate motor areas (CMAs) ROIs act as ''hubs'' for the outfl{ligature}ow of information in both groups, SCI and healthy. Results also suggest that spinal cord injuries affect the functional architecture of the cortical network sub-serving the volition of motor acts mainly in its local feature property.In particular, a higher local efficiency El can be observed in the SCI patients for three frequency bands, theta (3-6 Hz), alpha (7-12 Hz) and beta (13-29 Hz).By taking into account all the possible pathways between different ROI couples, we were able to separate clearly the network properties of the SCI group from the CTRL group. In particular, we report a sort of compensatory mechanism in the SCI patients for the Theta (3-6 Hz) frequency band, indicating a higher level of " activation" Ω within the cortical network during the motor task. The activation index is directly related to diffusion, a type of dynamics that underlies several biological systems including possible spreading of neuronal activation across several cortical regions.Conclusions: The present study aims at demonstrating the possible applications of graph theoretical approaches in the analyses of brain functional connectivity from EEG signals. In particular, the methodological aspects of the i) cortical activity from scalp EEG signals, ii) functional connectivity estimations iii) graph theoretical indexes are emphasized in the present paper to show their impact in a real application. © 2010 Babiloni et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

A graph-theoretical approach in brain functional networks. Possible implications in EEG studies / DE VICO FALLANI, Fabrizio; Luciano, Costa; Francisco, Rodriguez; Astolfi, Laura; Vecchiato, Giovanni; Toppi, Jlenia; Borghini, Gianluca; Cincotti, Febo; Donatella, Mattia; Salinari, Serenella; Roberto, Isabella; Babiloni, Fabio. - In: NONLINEAR BIOMEDICAL PHYSICS. - ISSN 1753-4631. - 4:SUPPL. 1(2010), pp. S8-8. [10.1186/1753-4631-4-s1-s8]

A graph-theoretical approach in brain functional networks. Possible implications in EEG studies

DE VICO FALLANI, FABRIZIO;ASTOLFI, LAURA;VECCHIATO, GIOVANNI;TOPPI, JLENIA;BORGHINI, GIANLUCA;CINCOTTI, FEBO;SALINARI, Serenella;BABILONI, Fabio
2010

Abstract

Background: Recently, it was realized that the functional connectivity networks estimated from actual brain-imaging technologies (MEG, fMRI and EEG) can be analyzed by means of the graph theory, that is a mathematical representation of a network, which is essentially reduced to nodes and connections between them.Methods: We used high-resolution EEG technology to enhance the poor spatial information of the EEG activity on the scalp and it gives a measure of the electrical activity on the cortical surface. Afterwards, we used the Directed Transfer Function (DTF) that is a multivariate spectral measure for the estimation of the directional influences between any given pair of channels in a multivariate dataset. Finally, a graph theoretical approach was used to model the brain networks as graphs. These methods were used to analyze the structure of cortical connectivity during the attempt to move a paralyzed limb in a group (N=5) of spinal cord injured patients and during the movement execution in a group (N=5) of healthy subjects.Results: Analysis performed on the cortical networks estimated from the group of normal and SCI patients revealed that both groups present few nodes with a high out-degree value (i.e. outgoing links). This property is valid in the networks estimated for all the frequency bands investigated. In particular, cingulate motor areas (CMAs) ROIs act as ''hubs'' for the outfl{ligature}ow of information in both groups, SCI and healthy. Results also suggest that spinal cord injuries affect the functional architecture of the cortical network sub-serving the volition of motor acts mainly in its local feature property.In particular, a higher local efficiency El can be observed in the SCI patients for three frequency bands, theta (3-6 Hz), alpha (7-12 Hz) and beta (13-29 Hz).By taking into account all the possible pathways between different ROI couples, we were able to separate clearly the network properties of the SCI group from the CTRL group. In particular, we report a sort of compensatory mechanism in the SCI patients for the Theta (3-6 Hz) frequency band, indicating a higher level of " activation" Ω within the cortical network during the motor task. The activation index is directly related to diffusion, a type of dynamics that underlies several biological systems including possible spreading of neuronal activation across several cortical regions.Conclusions: The present study aims at demonstrating the possible applications of graph theoretical approaches in the analyses of brain functional connectivity from EEG signals. In particular, the methodological aspects of the i) cortical activity from scalp EEG signals, ii) functional connectivity estimations iii) graph theoretical indexes are emphasized in the present paper to show their impact in a real application. © 2010 Babiloni et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
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A graph-theoretical approach in brain functional networks. Possible implications in EEG studies / DE VICO FALLANI, Fabrizio; Luciano, Costa; Francisco, Rodriguez; Astolfi, Laura; Vecchiato, Giovanni; Toppi, Jlenia; Borghini, Gianluca; Cincotti, Febo; Donatella, Mattia; Salinari, Serenella; Roberto, Isabella; Babiloni, Fabio. - In: NONLINEAR BIOMEDICAL PHYSICS. - ISSN 1753-4631. - 4:SUPPL. 1(2010), pp. S8-8. [10.1186/1753-4631-4-s1-s8]
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