This research is about Egyptian fertility during the last fifty years. The fertility has experienced a unique evolution compared to other countries with similar development level: an early drop of the TFR has been observed since the end of the fifties, followed by a long fluctuation period, then by a new decline since the middle eighties, by a stagnation during the second part of the nineties, and finally by a new decline since the year 2000. The main hypothesis of the study is that fertility has kept a medium level for several reasons, in particular the institutional context, the religious traditionalism, the economic crisis and poverty, the political situation, the role of women in the society, the early marriage, the infant and maternal mortality… Therefore we try to conceptualize the effects of institutions from the economical, social, political and religious point of view on demographic behaviours, in particular on the fertility decline. Actually we study the factors that affect the supply and the demand of children and we observe the political context in which fertility transition takes place.
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