: Skeletal muscle is characterized by a remarkable capacity to rearrange after physiological changes and efficiently regenerate. However, during aging, extensive injury, or pathological conditions, the complete regenerative program is severely affected, with a progressive loss of muscle mass and function, a condition known as sarcopenia. The compromised tissue repair program is attributable to the gradual depletion of stem cells and to altered regulatory signals. Defective muscle regeneration can severely affect re-innervation by motor axons, and neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) development, ultimately leading to skeletal muscle atrophy. Defects in NMJ formation and maintenance occur physiologically during aging and are responsible for the pathogenesis of several neuromuscular disorders. However, it is still largely unknown how neuromuscular connections are restored on regenerating fibers. It has been suggested that attractive and repelling signals used for axon guidance could be implicated in this process; in particular, guidance molecules called semaphorins play a key role. Semaphorins are a wide family of extracellular regulatory signals with a multifaceted role in cell-cell communication. Originally discovered as axon guidance factors, they have been implicated in cancer progression, embryonal organogenesis, skeletal muscle innervation, and other physiological and developmental functions in different tissues. In particular, in skeletal muscle, specific semaphorin molecules are involved in the restoration and remodeling of the nerve-muscle connections, thus emphasizing their plausible role to ensure the success of muscle regeneration. This review article aims to discuss the impact of aging on skeletal muscle regeneration and NMJs remodeling and will highlight the most recent insights about the role of semaphorins in this context.

Semaphorins: missing signals in age-dependent alteration of neuromuscular junctions and skeletal muscle regeneration / Fard, Damon; Barbiera, Alessandra; Dobrowolny, Gabriella; Tamagnone, Luca; Scicchitano, Bianca Maria. - In: AGING AND DISEASE. - ISSN 2152-5250. - 15:2(2024), pp. 1-18. [10.14336/AD.2023.0801]

Semaphorins: missing signals in age-dependent alteration of neuromuscular junctions and skeletal muscle regeneration

Barbiera, Alessandra
Secondo
;
Dobrowolny, Gabriella;Scicchitano, Bianca Maria
Ultimo
2024

Abstract

: Skeletal muscle is characterized by a remarkable capacity to rearrange after physiological changes and efficiently regenerate. However, during aging, extensive injury, or pathological conditions, the complete regenerative program is severely affected, with a progressive loss of muscle mass and function, a condition known as sarcopenia. The compromised tissue repair program is attributable to the gradual depletion of stem cells and to altered regulatory signals. Defective muscle regeneration can severely affect re-innervation by motor axons, and neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) development, ultimately leading to skeletal muscle atrophy. Defects in NMJ formation and maintenance occur physiologically during aging and are responsible for the pathogenesis of several neuromuscular disorders. However, it is still largely unknown how neuromuscular connections are restored on regenerating fibers. It has been suggested that attractive and repelling signals used for axon guidance could be implicated in this process; in particular, guidance molecules called semaphorins play a key role. Semaphorins are a wide family of extracellular regulatory signals with a multifaceted role in cell-cell communication. Originally discovered as axon guidance factors, they have been implicated in cancer progression, embryonal organogenesis, skeletal muscle innervation, and other physiological and developmental functions in different tissues. In particular, in skeletal muscle, specific semaphorin molecules are involved in the restoration and remodeling of the nerve-muscle connections, thus emphasizing their plausible role to ensure the success of muscle regeneration. This review article aims to discuss the impact of aging on skeletal muscle regeneration and NMJs remodeling and will highlight the most recent insights about the role of semaphorins in this context.
2024
semaphorin; aging; skeletal muscle; plexins; satellite cells; NMJs, semaphorins; regeneration; sarcopenia; YAP/TAZ
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01g Articolo di rassegna (Review)
Semaphorins: missing signals in age-dependent alteration of neuromuscular junctions and skeletal muscle regeneration / Fard, Damon; Barbiera, Alessandra; Dobrowolny, Gabriella; Tamagnone, Luca; Scicchitano, Bianca Maria. - In: AGING AND DISEASE. - ISSN 2152-5250. - 15:2(2024), pp. 1-18. [10.14336/AD.2023.0801]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1697368
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