Background: Macrophages take center stage in the tumor microenvironment, a niche composed of extracellular matrix and a heterogeneous group of cells, including immune ones. They can evolve during tumor progression and acquire Tumor-Associated Macrophage (TAMs) phenotype. The release of cytokines by tumor and stromal cells, influence the secretion of cytokines by TAMs, which can guarantee tumor progression and influence the response to therapy. Among all factors able to recruit and polarize macrophages, we focused our attention on Bcl-xL, a multifaceted member of the Bcl-2 family, whose expression is deregulated in melanoma. It acts not only as a canonical pro-survival and anti-apoptotic protein, but also as a promoter of tumor progression. Methods: Human melanoma cells silencing or overexpressing Bcl-xL protein, THP-1 monocytic cells and monocyte-derived macrophages were used in this study. Protein array and specific neutralizing antibodies were used to analyze cytokines and chemokines secreted by melanoma cells. qRT-PCR, ELISA and Western Blot analyses were used to evaluate macrophage polarization markers and protein expression levels. Transwell chambers were used to evaluate migration of THP-1 and monocyte-derived macrophages. Mouse and zebrafish models were used to evaluate the ability of melanoma cells to recruit and polarize macrophages in vivo. Results: We demonstrated that melanoma cells overexpressing Bcl-xL recruit macrophages at the tumor site and induce a M2 phenotype. In addition, we identified that interleukin-8 and interleukin-1β cytokines are involved in macrophage polarization, and the chemokine CCL5/RANTES in the macrophages recruitment at the tumor site. We also found that all these Bcl-xL-induced factors are regulated in a NF-kB dependent manner in human and zebrafish melanoma models. Conclusions: Our findings confirmed the pro-tumoral function of Bcl-xL in melanoma through its effects on macrophage phenotype.

Exploring association of melanoma-specific Bcl-xL with tumor immune microenvironment / Lucianò, Anna Maria; Di Martile, Marta; Pérez-Oliva, Ana B; Di Caprio, Marica; Foddai, Maria Laura; Buglioni, Simonetta; Mulero, Victoriano; Del Bufalo, Donatella. - In: JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH. - ISSN 1756-9966. - 42:1(2023), pp. 1-14. [10.1186/s13046-023-02735-9]

Exploring association of melanoma-specific Bcl-xL with tumor immune microenvironment

Di Martile, Marta;Di Caprio, Marica;
2023

Abstract

Background: Macrophages take center stage in the tumor microenvironment, a niche composed of extracellular matrix and a heterogeneous group of cells, including immune ones. They can evolve during tumor progression and acquire Tumor-Associated Macrophage (TAMs) phenotype. The release of cytokines by tumor and stromal cells, influence the secretion of cytokines by TAMs, which can guarantee tumor progression and influence the response to therapy. Among all factors able to recruit and polarize macrophages, we focused our attention on Bcl-xL, a multifaceted member of the Bcl-2 family, whose expression is deregulated in melanoma. It acts not only as a canonical pro-survival and anti-apoptotic protein, but also as a promoter of tumor progression. Methods: Human melanoma cells silencing or overexpressing Bcl-xL protein, THP-1 monocytic cells and monocyte-derived macrophages were used in this study. Protein array and specific neutralizing antibodies were used to analyze cytokines and chemokines secreted by melanoma cells. qRT-PCR, ELISA and Western Blot analyses were used to evaluate macrophage polarization markers and protein expression levels. Transwell chambers were used to evaluate migration of THP-1 and monocyte-derived macrophages. Mouse and zebrafish models were used to evaluate the ability of melanoma cells to recruit and polarize macrophages in vivo. Results: We demonstrated that melanoma cells overexpressing Bcl-xL recruit macrophages at the tumor site and induce a M2 phenotype. In addition, we identified that interleukin-8 and interleukin-1β cytokines are involved in macrophage polarization, and the chemokine CCL5/RANTES in the macrophages recruitment at the tumor site. We also found that all these Bcl-xL-induced factors are regulated in a NF-kB dependent manner in human and zebrafish melanoma models. Conclusions: Our findings confirmed the pro-tumoral function of Bcl-xL in melanoma through its effects on macrophage phenotype.
2023
Bcl-xL; melanoma; tumor-associated macrophages
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01a Articolo in rivista
Exploring association of melanoma-specific Bcl-xL with tumor immune microenvironment / Lucianò, Anna Maria; Di Martile, Marta; Pérez-Oliva, Ana B; Di Caprio, Marica; Foddai, Maria Laura; Buglioni, Simonetta; Mulero, Victoriano; Del Bufalo, Donatella. - In: JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH. - ISSN 1756-9966. - 42:1(2023), pp. 1-14. [10.1186/s13046-023-02735-9]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1696478
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