: Classical neurophysiology suggests that the motor cortex (MI) has a unique role in action control. In contrast, this review presents evidence for multiple parieto-frontal spinal command modules that can bypass MI. Five observations support this modular perspective: (i) the statistics of cortical connectivity demonstrate functionally-related clusters of cortical areas, defining functional modules in the premotor, cingulate, and parietal cortices; (ii) different corticospinal pathways originate from the above areas, each with a distinct range of conduction velocities; (iii) the activation time of each module varies depending on task, and different modules can be activated simultaneously; (iv) a modular architecture with direct motor output is faster and less metabolically expensive than an architecture that relies on MI, given the slow connections between MI and other cortical areas; (v) lesions of the areas composing parieto-frontal modules have different effects from lesions of MI. Here we provide examples of six cortico-spinal modules and functions they subserve: module 1) arm reaching, tool use and object construction; module 2) spatial navigation and locomotion; module 3) grasping and observation of hand and mouth actions; module 4) action initiation, motor sequences, time encoding; module 5) conditional motor association and learning, action plan switching and action inhibition; module 6) planning defensive actions. These modules can serve as a library of tools to be recombined when faced with novel tasks, and MI might serve as a recombinatory hub. In conclusion, the availability of locally-stored information and multiple outflow paths supports the physiological plausibility of the proposed modular perspective.

Cortico-spinal modularity in the parieto-frontal system: a new perspective on action control / Bufacchi, R J; Battaglia Mayer, Alessandra; Iannetti, G D; Caminiti, Roberto. - In: PROGRESS IN NEUROBIOLOGY. - ISSN 0301-0082. - 231:(2023), pp. 1-39. [10.1016/j.pneurobio.2023.102537]

Cortico-spinal modularity in the parieto-frontal system: a new perspective on action control

Battaglia Mayer, Alessandra;Caminiti, Roberto
2023

Abstract

: Classical neurophysiology suggests that the motor cortex (MI) has a unique role in action control. In contrast, this review presents evidence for multiple parieto-frontal spinal command modules that can bypass MI. Five observations support this modular perspective: (i) the statistics of cortical connectivity demonstrate functionally-related clusters of cortical areas, defining functional modules in the premotor, cingulate, and parietal cortices; (ii) different corticospinal pathways originate from the above areas, each with a distinct range of conduction velocities; (iii) the activation time of each module varies depending on task, and different modules can be activated simultaneously; (iv) a modular architecture with direct motor output is faster and less metabolically expensive than an architecture that relies on MI, given the slow connections between MI and other cortical areas; (v) lesions of the areas composing parieto-frontal modules have different effects from lesions of MI. Here we provide examples of six cortico-spinal modules and functions they subserve: module 1) arm reaching, tool use and object construction; module 2) spatial navigation and locomotion; module 3) grasping and observation of hand and mouth actions; module 4) action initiation, motor sequences, time encoding; module 5) conditional motor association and learning, action plan switching and action inhibition; module 6) planning defensive actions. These modules can serve as a library of tools to be recombined when faced with novel tasks, and MI might serve as a recombinatory hub. In conclusion, the availability of locally-stored information and multiple outflow paths supports the physiological plausibility of the proposed modular perspective.
2023
action control; cortical lesions; cortico-cortical connections; cortico-spinal connections; cortico-spinal modules; parieto-frontal system
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01g Articolo di rassegna (Review)
Cortico-spinal modularity in the parieto-frontal system: a new perspective on action control / Bufacchi, R J; Battaglia Mayer, Alessandra; Iannetti, G D; Caminiti, Roberto. - In: PROGRESS IN NEUROBIOLOGY. - ISSN 0301-0082. - 231:(2023), pp. 1-39. [10.1016/j.pneurobio.2023.102537]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1691698
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